The Mexican-American War
Jun 05, · The Mexican-American War () marked the first U.S. armed conflict chiefly fought on foreign soil. It pitted a politically divided and militarily. The Mexican-American War was a conflict between the United States and Mexico, fought from April to February Won by the Americans and damned by its contemporary critics as expansionist, it resulted in the U.S. gaining more than , square miles (1,, square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean.
As to the commanders on the U. Some of the famous names include: Robert E. Lee, William Tecumseh Sherman, P. Beauregard, Stonewall Jackson, Ulysses S. The American Army won almost all the battles in this war and it ended in with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
After all the battle and warfare, Mexico sold more than half of its territory to the United States as a result. This was the first time in history that people were able to receive the latest news from the reporters on the front via telegraph. It made the general awareness of the war and what battles were lost or won known to a what was the mexican war number of people. American troops used the new flying artillery: cannons and artillery soldiers that could move around the battlefield more quickly than ever before, starting to change the way battles were fought.
The Mexican government insisted that the actual border was the Rio Nueces, miles to the north. The intervening Trans-Nueces region was an uninhibited wasteland of no particular how to make chocolate covered turtles interest to either government, but the 1,mile-long Rio Grande stretched all the way to the Rocky Mountains — using it as the border could expand Texas into an empire. The U. Neither did the Mexican government define it when, at the same time, Mexico offered the Republic of Texas provisional recognition if Texas refused to become part of the United States.
Events developed slowly but steadily, and in August U. President James K. Polk sent an Army of Occupation under General Zachary Taylor to encamp at what is now Corpus Christi, just inside what is a drop in stove southern boundary of the disputed Trans-Nueces territory. With later reinforcements, by spring of Taylor had nearly 4, soldiers, all regulars. Meanwhile, in December Polk sent an emissary to the latest president of Mexico, General Jose Herrera, who had indicated a willingness to negotiate.
Surely, the Mexican government would find such money irresistible? The Mexican press went ballistic — who put up a for sale sign? Herrera therefore did not dare receive Slidell. To boost his damaged credibility, Herrera then ordered General Mariano Paredes in San Luis Potosi to march north to the disputed border. Paredes, indeed, did march. Dollar diplomacy having backfired, Polk told Taylor to move his army to the Rio Grande. Taylor sortied on March 8, On March 28, the force arrived at the Rio Grande opposite What is sign language interpreting, having made a side trip to seize a port for receiving supplies by sea at Point Isabel, 23 miles northeast of Matamoros on the Gulf of Mexico coast.
Built in a vague star shape with six corner bastions, the fort featured walls that were 9. Thousands of cubic yards of dirt had to be excavated with hand tools, causing the work to continue night and day. Although Matamoros had a garrison of about 3, Mexican soldiers, the two sides did not exchange gunfire. Paredes, following his coup in Mexico City, had dismissed the commander of the Matamoros area, General How to improve graffiti skills Arista a future president of Mexicofor not supporting his takeover.
He then had General Pedro de Ampudia scrape together about 2, second-line troops left in San Luis Potosi and head north. Being broke, the Mexican forces faced chronic shortages.
When Arista returned, he decided how do you get acne to go away fast act immediately while he still held a numerical superiority over the American force, surmising correctly that Taylor would promptly ask for reinforcements.
Hearing of the Mexican movement, Taylor sent scouting patrols upstream and downstream on April The following day, Thornton, leading the upstream patrol, was ambushed. Before the Mexican mounted force could do much more damage, Arista sent the men to a point 13 miles downstream from Matamoros to cover the planned crossing of his main infantry force, which began April Within two hours Taylor had his army on the road back to Point Isabel, hoping to secure it against the Mexican threat and then return to the fort with more supplies.
At the hastily finished fort, Taylor left an infantry regiment and three artillery batteries, totaling about soldiers. He reached Point Isabel around noon the next day, May 2. At about that same time, Arista finished crossing the river and set out toward Point Isabel, leaving a force under Ampudia to watch the fort. On May 3, Arista reached the Palo Alto area and found that he had missed Taylor, who had already passed through on his way to Point Isabel.
Also on May 3, the Mexican artillery bombardment of the fort began, continuing during daylight hours for the next six days. Then they headed back to the fort, traveling seven miles before camping. The flat prairie provided no protective cover, while thick, knee-high cord grass, scattered ponds and muddy ground restricted off-road movement. Random clumps of brush offered only minimal concealment, but denser thickets did limit visibility to the west and south. Taylor formed the men on a line about 1, yards long, with the wagon train gathered in the rear.
Two pounder cannon were in the middle of the line, along with two batteries of four six-pounders each. Employing well-rehearsed drills, they would dash up to a point near the enemy line just beyond musket range, fire several rounds into the opposing ranks and then dash away. Two eight-pounder guns and six four-pounders were scattered along the Mexican line.
The Mexican artillery began firing about p. When the superior U. This was the theme for the rest of the day, as the excellent U. Arista tried to send cavalry around the west flank, but the Mexican horsemen literally bogged down in the muddy, broken terrain and were easily driven off. Combat operations there were halted between about 4 p.
Arista then launched an attack on the east flank, but it too was unsuccessful and his retreating soldiers how to take pictures on a psp the Mexican line.
The superbly trained, aggressively led U. Mexican casualties totaled killed and wounded or missing. On the morning of What does cue mean on virtual dj 9, he led the Mexican army south on the Matamoros road six miles to its crossing of Resaca de la Palma. The terrain beyond the road corridor was an increasingly dense chaparral thicket that was difficult for troops in formation to negotiate.
Arista deployed his force behind the vegetation-covered banks of the wide, dry resaca former riverbedwhere they had cover from the U. See Battle of Resaca de la Palma map. The Mexican what is a plow bolt extended about 1, yards on either side of the road, with seven cannon covering the crossing.
Taylor spent several hours at Palo Alto on May 9 fortifying his wagon train, and then he followed Arista, making contact about 2 p. Small unit melees, including hand-to-hand combat, broke out. Later U. They pressed their advantage and the entire Mexican position soon collapsed. Mexican casualties were killed, wounded and missing reports claim that many Mexican soldiers drowned during their panicked crossing of the Rio Grande.
Upon leading the army on to the fort, Taylor arrived there that evening to find that its commander, Major Jacob Brown, had died earlier that day after being severely wounded by a Mexican artillery shell on May 6.
Taylor named the earthwork Fort Brown. On May 17, Arista abandoned Matamoros and retreated southwest to Linares, leaving behind his artillery and about wounded Mexican soldiers. Arista began his hastily organized retreat with approximately 4, men and arrived 11 days later with only 2, It was exactly the kind of incident he wanted to justify a U.
But Polk had a much larger vision for what his new war with Mexico could achieve. Taylor pressed on to Monterrey and then to Saltillo in northern Mexico, and other U. So, in U. Naively believing that Santa Anna could negotiate a quick Mexican what was the mexican war, American authorities permitted the exiled politician-general to return to Mexico through the U. Thornton had been freed in a prisoner exchange and he marched with Scott; his bad luck, however, was unchanged. Thornton was killed by artillery fire on August 18,while leading another reconnaissance just before the Battle of Contreras near Mexico City.
The treaty not only officially recognized the border as the Rio Grande but also added to the United States vast territory that is today California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah, most of Arizona and Colorado, and slivers of Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma.
At almost the same time as the treaty ratification, word of a huge gold strike began filtering out of California and the Trans-Nueces was forgotten. It remains forgotten. Sadly, due to upstream irrigation, the river now has about one-fifth of the flow it had in Most of it was obliterated by later Rio Grande levee construction.
Fort Brown the military post was later established a few hundred yards to the north of the earthwork, and the city of Brownsville grew up beside it. Decommissioned init is now a college campus. The battlefield northwest of the bridge, where most of the fighting took place, is lost under suburban development. A largely vacant acre tract of land just northeast of the bridge, formerly a polo field, was finally acquired by the U. Aside from improved drainage, the Palo Alto battlefield has changed little.
The Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park was established in and now owns about 1, acres of the battlefield, mostly in the area the Mexican army defended. As for the Thornton ambush site, in late freshman congressman Abraham Lincoln tried to force the government to prove that the site had actually been American soil. A memorial to the Thornton incident was erected in marking a candidate site on Highway about two miles west how to mod xbox with ipod Los Indios, but this is almost a mile from the river and cannot be the correct location.
Since the Rio Grande River has meandered considerably, and today the ground for whose defense the U. Lamont Wood is a freelance writer living in San Antonio, Texas, who writes about both technology and history. He has written hundreds of articles for magazines and is the author of nine books. Dan How to heal sprained finger died at age 15 in and efforts to recognize the young African-American Marine continue and are highlighted in this Military Times documentary.
Six seconds was enough time to run — as many people nearby did — or enough time for a Marine to choose to bravely hold ground to protect the Marines behind him The Apache hope to save Oak Flat, a sacred site to the tribe, from mining operations Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines.
Originally published in the November issue of Armchair General.
Republic of Texas
Mexican-American War The Mexican-American War, waged between the United States and Mexico from to , helped to fulfill America's "manifest destiny" to expand its territory across the entire. Mexican War summary: The Mexican War was caused by the unresolved border dispute between Texas and Mexico after the United States had annexed Texas. As to the commanders on the U.S. side, it’s interesting to know that many of them became Generals in the Civil War thirteen years later. Mexican-American War: U.S. declaration of war Proclamation by President James Polk printed in a leaflet declaring the United States to be at war with Mexico, printed in Printed Ephemera Collection; Portfolio , Folder 4—Rare Book and Special Collections/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (rbpe ) On January 13, , Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande.
The Mexican-American War marked the first U. It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist-minded administration of U. President James K. A border skirmish along the Rio Grande started off the fighting and was followed by a series of U. When the dust cleared, Mexico had lost about one-third of its territory, including nearly all of present-day California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico.
Texas gained its independence from Mexico in Initially, the United States declined to incorporate it into the union, largely because northern political interests were against the addition of a new slave state. The Mexican government was also encouraging border raids and warning that any attempt at annexation would lead to war. When his offer to purchase those lands was rejected, he instigated a fight by moving troops into a disputed zone between the Rio Grande and Nueces River that both countries had previously recognized as part of the Mexican state of Coahuila.
On April 25, , Mexican cavalry attacked a group of U. They then laid siege to an American fort along the Rio Grande. Taylor called in reinforcements, and—with the help of superior rifles and artillery—was able to defeat the Mexicans at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Following those battles, Polk told the U. No official declaration of war ever came from Mexico. At that time, only about 75, Mexican citizens lived north of the Rio Grande. As a result, U.
Stephen W. Kearny and Commodore Robert F. Stockton were able to conquer those lands with minimal resistance. Taylor likewise had little trouble advancing, and he captured Monterrey in September. Santa Anna convinced Polk that, if allowed to return to Mexico, he would end the war on terms favorable to the United States.
But when he arrived, he immediately double-crossed Polk by taking control of the Mexican army and leading it into battle. Despite the loss, he assumed the Mexican presidency the following month.
Meanwhile, U. Winfield Scott landed in Veracruz and took over the city. The Mexicans resisted at Cerro Gordo and elsewhere, but were bested each time.
Guerilla attacks against U. Santa Anna resigned, and the United States waited for a new government capable of negotiations to form. Finally, on Feb. Under the treaty, Mexico also recognized the U. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
Although nearly everyone at the Alamo was killed or captured, Texas achieved independence when Sam Before invading Mexico, the U.
In late, President James K. Polk sent diplomat John Slidell on a secret mission to Mexico. Slidell was tasked with settling a longstanding disagreement about the border between the two countries, but he The war had begun almost two years earlier, in May , over a territorial dispute involving Texas.
The treaty added an additional , square miles to Causes: Remember the Maine! The war originated in the From the moment English colonists arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in , they shared an uneasy relationship with the Native Americans or Indians who had thrived on the land for thousands of years.
At the time, millions of indigenous people were scattered across North America During the Bear Flag Revolt, from June to July , a small group of American settlers in California rebelled against the Mexican government and proclaimed California an independent republic. The republic was short-lived because soon after the Bear Flag was raised, the U. With the wounds of the Mexican-American War fresh, these Mexican On September 16, , a progressive priest named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became the father of Mexican independence with a historic proclamation urging his fellow Mexicans to take up arms against the Spanish government.
Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Causes of the Mexican-American War. Struggle for Mexican Independence. Spanish American War. American Civil War History. American-Indian Wars From the moment English colonists arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in , they shared an uneasy relationship with the Native Americans or Indians who had thrived on the land for thousands of years.
Struggle for Mexican Independence On September 16, , a progressive priest named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became the father of Mexican independence with a historic proclamation urging his fellow Mexicans to take up arms against the Spanish government.