Aug 19, · What are signs of swine flu in pigs? Signs of swine flu in pigs can include fever, depression, coughing (barking), discharge from the nose or eyes, sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and going off feed. Some pigs infected with influenza, however, may show no signs of illness at all. How common is swine flu among pigs? Sep 17, · Swine flu, also known as the H1N1 virus, is a relatively new strain of an influenza virus that causes symptoms similar to the regular flu. It originated Author: Lydia Krause.
Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus SIV or swine-origin influenza virus S-OIV is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human fluoften resulting only in the production of antibodies how to hand stitch a buttonhole the blood.
If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. Around the midth century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human.
Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chillsfeversore throatmuscle painssevere headachecoughingweaknessshortness of breath, and general discomfort. There were 18, confirmed fatalities. However, in a study, the CDC estimated more thanpossible fatalities worldwide, with range fromtoSubsequent cases of swine flu were reported in India inwith over 31, positive test cases and 1, deaths up to March In pigs, a swine influenza infection produces feverlethargysneezingcoughingdifficulty breathing and decreased appetite.
Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible zoonotic swine flu. One of these had what is the estimated value of my home whereabouts. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCin humans the symptoms of the "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to influenza and influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fevercoughsore throatwatery eyes, body aches, shortness of breath, headacheweight loss, chillssneezing, runny nose, coughing, dizziness, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and fatigue.
The outbreak showed an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting as well. The H1N1 virus is not zoonotic swine flu, as it is not transmitted from pigs to humans, but from person to person through airborne droplets. Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine how to keep face looking young and healthy requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent and past medical history.
For example, during the swine flu outbreak in the United Statesthe CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Other causes of death are pneumonia leading to sepsis high fever leading to neurological problemsdehydration from excessive what language did the chinook tribe speak and diarrheaelectrolyte imbalance and kidney failure.
Influenza is quite common in pigs, with about half of breeding pigs having been exposed to the virus in the US. The main route of transmission is through direct contact between infected and uninfected animals.
Intensive farming may also increase the risk of transmission, as the pigs are raised in very close proximity to each other. Airborne transmission through the aerosols produced by pigs coughing or sneezing are also an important means of infection. People who work with poultry and swine, especially those with intense exposures, are at increased risk of zoonotic infection with influenza virus endemic in these animals, and constitute a population of human hosts in which zoonosis and reassortment can co-occur.
Pigs are unusual as they can be infected with influenza strains that usually infect three different species: pigs, birds, and humans. These H5N1 infections may be quite common; in a survey of 10 apparently healthy pigs housed near poultry farms in West Javawhere avian flu had broken out, five of the pig samples contained the H5N1 virus.
The Indonesian government has since found similar results in the same region. Additional tests of pigs outside the area were negative. The influenza virion is roughly spherical. It is an enveloped virus; the outer layer is a lipid membrane which is taken from the host cell in which the virus multiplies.
Inserted into the lipid membrane are "spikes", which are proteins—actually glycoproteins, because they consist of protein linked to sugars—known as HA hemagglutinin and NA neuraminidase. The HA and NA are important in the immune response against the virus; antibodies proteins made to combat infection against these spikes may protect against infection.
The NA protein is the target of the antiviral drugs Relenza and Tamiflu. Also embedded in the lipid membrane is the M2 proteinwhich is the target of the antiviral adamantanes amantadine and rimantadine.
Of the three genera of influenza viruses that cause human flutwo also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common in pigs and influenza C being rare. Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely distinct, although because of reassortment there have been transfers of genes among strains crossing swine, avian, and human species boundaries.
Influenza viruses infect both humans and pigs, but do not infect birds. She contracted the illness after having contact with hogs at the Ross County Fair. Near-patient point-of-care tests are in development. Prevention of swine influenza has three components: prevention in pigs, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans.
Proper hand washing techniques can prevent the virus from spreading. Avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth.
Stay away from others who display symptoms of the cold or flu and avoid contact with others when displaying symptoms.
Because much of the illness and death associated with swine flu involves secondary infection by other pathogens, control strategies that rely on vaccination may be insufficient.
Control of swine influenza by vaccination has become more difficult in recent decades, as the evolution of the virus has resulted in inconsistent responses to traditional vaccines. Standard commercial swine flu vaccines are effective in controlling the infection when the virus strains match enough to have significant cross-protection, and custom autogenous vaccines made from the specific viruses isolated are created and used in the more difficult cases.
Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses.
Facility management includes using disinfectants and ambient temperature to control viruses in the environment. They are unlikely to survive outside living cells for more than two weeks, except in cold but above freezing conditions, and are readily inactivated by disinfectants. The virus survives in healthy carrier pigs for up to three months, and can be recovered from them between outbreaks. Carrier pigs are usually responsible for the introduction of SIV into previously uninfected herds and countries, so new animals should be quarantined.
Swine can be infected by both avian and human flu strains of influenza, and therefore are hosts where the antigenic shifts can occur that create new influenza strains.
The transmission from swine to humans is believed to occur mainly in swine farms, where farmers are in close contact with live pigs.
Although strains of swine influenza are usually not able to infect humans, it may occasionally happen, so farmers and veterinarians are encouraged to use face masks when dealing with infected animals. The use of vaccines on swine to prevent their infection is a major method of limiting swine-to-human transmission. Risk factors that may contribute to swine-to-human transmission include smoking and, especially, not wearing gloves when working with sick animals, thereby increasing the likelihood of subsequent hand-to-eye, hand-to-nose, or hand-to-mouth transmission.
Influenza spreads between humans when infected people cough or sneeze, then other people breathe in the virus or touch something with the virus on it and then touch their own face. Germs spread this way. Diagnosis can be made by sending a specimen, collected during the first five days, for analysis. Recommendations to prevent spread of the virus among humans include using standard infection controlwhich includes frequent washing of hands with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizersespecially after being out in public.
Experts agree hand-washing can help prevent viral infections, including ordinary and swine flu infections. Also, avoiding touching one's eyes, nose, or mouth with one's hands helps to prevent the flu.
Alcohol-based gel or foam hand sanitizers work well to destroy viruses and bacteria. Anyone with flu-like symptoms, such as a sudden fever, cough, or muscle aches, should stay away from work or public transportation and should contact a doctor for advice.
Social distancinganother tactic, is staying away from other people who might be infected, and can include avoiding large gatherings, spreading out a little at work, or perhaps staying home and lying low if an infection is spreading in a community.
Public health and other responsible authorities have action plans which may request or require social distancing actions, depending on the severity of the outbreak.
Vaccines are available for different kinds of swine flu. The U. In the aftermath of the pandemic, several studies were conducted to see who received influenza vaccines. These studies show that whites are much more likely to be vaccinated for seasonal influenza and for the H1N1 strain than African Americans  This could be due to several factors.
Historically, there has been mistrust of vaccines and of the medical community from African Americans. Many African Americans do not believe vaccines or doctors to be effective. This mistrust stems from the exploitation of the African American communities during studies like the Tuskegee study. Additionally, vaccines are how to reduce fever in infants administered in clinics, hospitals, or doctor's offices.
Many people of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive vaccinations because they do not have health insurance. Although there is no formal national surveillance system in the United States to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs,  an informal surveillance network in the United States is part of a world surveillance network.
As swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs, little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required. Antibiotics are also used to treat the disease, which, although they have no effect against the influenza virus, do help prevent bacterial pneumonia and other secondary infections in influenza-weakened herds. Since another subtype, pdmH1N1emerged globally and also in European pig population. The prevalence varies from country to country but all of the subtypes are continuously circulating in swine herds.
In the EU region whole-virus vaccines are available which are inactivated and adjuvanted. Vaccination of sows is common practice and reveals also a benefit to young pigs by prolonging the maternally level of antibodies. Several commercial vaccines are available including a trivalent one being used in sow vaccination and a vaccine against pdmH1N1 In vaccinated sows multiplication of viruses and virus shedding are significantly reduced.
If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu how to open aspx file in windows xp. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick within two days of symptoms.
Beside antivirals, supportive care at home or in a hospital focuses on controlling fevers, relieving pain and maintaining fluid balance, as well as identifying and treating any secondary infections or other medical problems. In the U. The agency issued these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the current approval allows and to allow the widespread distribution of the drugs, including by volunteers.
Swine influenza was first proposed to be a disease related to human flu during the flu pandemicwhen pigs became ill at the same time as humans.
Then, between andnew strains of three different subtypes and five different genotypes emerged as how to enable minidumps on windows vista of influenza among pigs in North America.
In —, H3N2 strains emerged.
Mar 12, · Swine flu, or H1N1, moved from pigs to people in and caused a pandemic. It is now a relatively common type of flu, and most people have some immunity. Learn more ctcwd.com: Yvette Brazier. Apr 21, · Symptoms of H1N1 swine flu are like regular flu symptoms and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Many people with swine flu Author: Daniel J. Denoon. May 14, · Like the regular flu, swine flu can lead to more serious problems including pneumonia, a lung infection, and other breathing problems. And it .
The H1N1 flu, commonly known as swine flu, is primarily caused by the H1N1 strain of the flu influenza virus. H1N1 is a type of influenza A virus, and H1N1 is one of several flu virus strains that can cause the seasonal flu. Symptoms of the H1N1 flu are the same as those of the seasonal flu. In the spring of , scientists recognized a particular strain of flu virus known as H1N1.
This virus is a combination of viruses from pigs, birds and humans that causes disease in humans. During the flu season, H1N1 caused the respiratory infection in humans that was commonly referred to as swine flu. In August , WHO declared the pandemic over. After the pandemic was over, the H1N1 flu virus became one of the strains that cause seasonal flu. The flu vaccine can now help protect against the H1N1 flu swine flu. The H1N1 flu virus strain is included in the seasonal flu vaccine, including the vaccine for The signs and symptoms of flu caused by the H1N1 virus are similar to those of infections caused by other flu strains and can include:.
It's not necessary to see a doctor if you're generally healthy and develop flu signs and symptoms, such as fever, cough and body aches.
Call your doctor, however, if you have flu symptoms and you're pregnant or you have a chronic disease, such as asthma, emphysema, diabetes or a heart condition, because you have a higher risk of flu complications. If you have emergency signs and symptoms of the flu, get medical care right away. For adults, emergency signs and symptoms can include:. Influenza viruses such as H1N1 infect the cells that line your nose, throat and lungs.
The virus enters your body when you inhale contaminated droplets or transfer live virus from a contaminated surface to your eyes, nose or mouth.
If you live in or travel to an area where many people are infected with the H1N1 virus, you may be exposed to the virus.
Each year's seasonal flu vaccine protects against the three or four influenza viruses that are expected to be the most common during that year's flu season. The flu vaccine can reduce your risk of the flu and its severity and lower the risk of having serious illness from the flu and needing to stay in the hospital. Flu vaccination is especially important in the flu season because the flu and coronavirus disease COVID cause similar symptoms.
Preventing the flu and reducing the severity of flu illness and hospitalizations could also lessen the number of people needing to stay in the hospital. The flu vaccine is available as an injection and as a nasal spray. The nasal spray is approved for use in healthy people ages 2 through 49 years old. The nasal spray isn't recommended for some groups, such as pregnant women, children between 2 and 4 years old with asthma or wheezing, and people who have compromised immune systems.
For example, you may need to practice social distancing physical distancing and stay at least 6 feet 2 meters from others outside your household. You may also need to wear a cloth face mask when around people outside your household.
Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview The H1N1 flu, commonly known as swine flu, is primarily caused by the H1N1 strain of the flu influenza virus.
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Mayo Clinic. Influenza vaccination. Mayo Clinic; Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community. Renaud DL expert opinion. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Reye syndrome. Merck Manual Professional Version. Ibuprofen drug facts label. Food and Drug Administration. Acetaminophen oral. Prevent seasonal flu. Accessed Oct. Frequently asked influenza flu questions: season. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, Sullivan JE, et al.
Clinical report — Fever and antipyretic use in children. Reaffirmed July Labeling of drug preparations containing salicylates. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Accessed Feb. Related Flu masks Flu vaccine: Safe for people with egg allergy? Show more related content. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Related information Coronavirus vs.