New Lyme-disease-causing bacteria species discovered
Lyme disease is an infection caused by several strains of the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). The bacteria is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. These ticks can also transmit other diseases and infect pets and livestock. The tick that transmits Lyme is so small you may not notice it. Feb 08, · The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with Mayo Clinic and health officials from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota, report the discovery of a new species of bacteria (Borrelia mayonii) that causes Lyme disease in people.
Why is it so important to understand the different species of Lyme disease Borrelia? Not all diagnostic tests are designed to detect all known species of Lyme-causing Borrelia. This can lead to false negatives if a person is tested for one species or strain but is actually infected with another. This article will cover some of the most important known species of Lyme disease Borreliawhen they were discovered, where they are most common, and what doctors should know about testing for multiple species.
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the U. But first, keep reading to learn about what all species of Lyme Borrelia have in common. Spiral- or corkscrew-shaped bacteria like those in the group Borrelia are known as spirochetes. Not all spirochetes are pathogenic, and not all pathogenic spirochetes are vector-borne. For example, the spirochete group Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis through sexual transmission. The pathogenic spirochetes in the group Borrelia are zoonotic — meaning they are spread from animals to humans and to other animals — and vector-borne — meaning they are transmitted through vectors, namely ticks and lice.
Lyme disease Borrelia live in so-called reservoir hosts, such as birds or the white-footed mouse, and are transmitted to tick larvae or nymphs during the feeding process. When these ticks then go on to feed on larger mammals such as humans, the bacteria are transmitted and cause an infection resulting in Lyme disease. Below is a breakdown of the different types of Lyme Borrelia scientists have discovered so far.
This broad classification of Lyme-causing Borrelia includes many species and strains how to make macrame jewelry Lyme-causing Borreliaincluding:. The Lyme-causing bacteria was first discovered in by scientist Willy Burgdorfer, and subsequently named after him: Borrelia burgdorferi. When scientists refer to the species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictothey are referring to one of two strains in this species: B.
Transmitted by the black-legged tickhow to unrestrict your phone is the predominant species in North America but is also common in Europe. Discovered inB. Until recentlythese were the three primary species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato recognized by scientists. However, at least 18 distinct classifications of Lyme-causing bacteria have since been discovered. New species and strains of Lyme-causing Borrelia continue to be discovered, underscoring the importance of diagnostic testing that is capable of picking up multiple species and strains.
A separate but related group of Borrelia is responsible for what are known as relapsing fever diseases. TBRF Borrelia differ from Lyme Borrelia in that they are mostly transmitted by soft ticks, which feed and transmit disease much more quickly than the hard ticks that spread Lyme. However, the species B.
The most common diagnostic tests for Lyme disease are designed to detect only one strain of one species of Lyme Borrelia — most often Bb ss B These tests will entirely miss infections caused by other species or strains, leading to false negatives and missed or delayed diagnosis.
This, in turn, can lead not only to high financial costs for patients as they struggle for accurate diagnosis, but also drastic harm to their quality of life — and even the risk of death — as Lyme infections progress and worsen.
IGeneX is at the forefront of more accurate, more sensitive and inclusive Lyme disease testing. Learn more about IGeneX Lyme disease tests today. For the most up to date and accurate information and articles about ticks and tick-borne diseases, please visit Tick Talk Resource. Why IGeneX? Shopping Cart. Borrelia are spirochetes Spiral- or corkscrew-shaped bacteria like those in the group Borrelia are known as spirochetes. Borrelia cause vector-borne infectious diseases The pathogenic spirochetes in the group Borrelia are zoonotic — meaning they are spread from animals to humans and to other animals — and vector-borne — what are the symptoms of heat illness they are transmitted through vectors, namely ticks and lice.
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato This broad classification of Lyme-causing Borrelia includes many species and strains of Lyme-causing Borreliaincluding: 1. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto The Lyme-causing bacteria was first discovered in by scientist Willy Burgdorfer, and subsequently named after him: Borrelia burgdorferi.
Borrelia afzelii Discovered inB. Borrelia garinii garinii is responsible for Lyme disease in Eurasia. Implications for Diagnostic Testing The most common diagnostic tests for Lyme disease are designed to detect only one strain of one species of Lyme Borrelia — most often Bb ss B Let's Connect. Tick Talk Resource For the most up to date and accurate information and articles about ticks and tick-borne diseases, please visit Tick Talk Resource.
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Lyme disease is caused by several species of spiral-shaped bacteria – or “spirochetes” – from the group Borrelia. Species of Borrelia that cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, but it’s important to note that this group contains at least 18 known species of . Jan 29, · The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is spread through the bite of infected ticks. The blacklegged tick (or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis) spreads the disease in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central United States. The western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) spreads the disease on the Pacific Coast. Mar 31, · Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, affects more than , people a year. It is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.
In , my husband and I became seriously ill after a vacation to Martha's Vineyard. It took ten doctors and a year to discover the root cause: We'd been bitten by unseen ticks harboring the parasites that cause Lyme disease and babesiosis, a malaria-like disease. Our road to recovery was grueling, requiring five years of intermittent antimicrobial treatments. Later, I discover that my situation wasn't all that uncommon. About one in five Lyme patients continue to suffer from ongoing symptoms after being treated with the recommended course of antibiotics.
After that experience, it was abundantly clear that we need better treatments. That's why I was excited to hear about a study from Stanford Medicine researchers and their collaborators that provides evidence that the drug azlocillin eliminates the bacteria that cause Lyme disease at the onset of infection in lab mice and cultures.
Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, affects more than , people a year. It is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi , which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.
If the disease isn't treated promptly, it can lead to life-threatening heart issues and chronic neurological problems. Common persistent Lyme symptoms include fatigue, joint pain, muscle pain, numbness, tingling, burning pains, and changes in mood, memory or mental clarity.
One possibility is that drug-tolerant bacteria cause the lingering symptoms. The team zeroed in on azlocillin as a promising drug candidate through the use of high throughput drug screening. This process entails acquiring "libraries" of thousands of known chemical compounds and drugs, then mixing Lyme bacteria with each in tiny wells to see which ones are best at killing the organisms. The best drug candidates were retested in larger culture dishes, then the safest of these were tested in vivo in seven mice.
Early results of this team's screening process, first published in , led to the discovery of another promising Lyme drug candidate, disulfiram, which is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorder.
This drug is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial with previously-treated Lyme patients. The trial coordinators are still looking for volunteers. According to the recent study, azlocillin shows promise because it appears to be able to kill the two morphological forms of the Lyme bacteria -- the actively replicating spiral forms and the semi-dormant round-body forms.
Azlocillin also appears to kill drug-tolerant persisters very effectively. These protective persisters form when the bacteria are threatened with defensive immune system biochemicals or antibiotics. After the threat has passed, the bacteria can reemerge to cause active disease. Many researchers believe that doxycyline's inability to clear the persisters may account for the ongoing symptoms of some Lyme sufferers. Although azlocillin is an FDA-approved drug, more research needs to be done before it is used to treat Lyme patients.
Rajadas and Pothineni have patented the compound for the treatment of Lyme disease and are working with a company to develop an oral form of the drug. Researchers plan to conduct a clinical trial.
Thank you! This image shows how the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi , form protective round body "persisters" when threatened by defensive immune system biochemicals in blood serum.
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