What long- standing political belief did enlightenment thinkers question

what long- standing political belief did enlightenment thinkers question

Social Studies

Nov 08,  · What long-standing political belief did Enlightenment thinkers question? The Social Contract. Divine Right. Checks and Balances. Monarchy Rule. Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 . Enlightenment Politics. During the Enlightenment period, new theories about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies (especially in the wake of the English Civil War, the American Revolution and the French Revolution) led to new questions and insights .

What was the main belief of Enlightenment thinkers? A That government power should be limited. B That a republic was the best form of government.

C That the use of reason was vital to improving society. D That a government should ploitical strong enough to carry out its duties. First Name. Your Response. What belief united the Progressive movement? A that society's problems could be solved B that education needed reform C that there should be a federal income tax D that political bosses should not hold office 2.

What was. Which features enlightenmebt the Roman government limited individual power? Select all that apply. The Senate was the most powerful branch of government. The assemblies were a form of direct democracy. The two consuls could veto. Which of the following statements best describes a federal system of government? Independent states form an alliance and give up clearly defined and limited powers to a national government. The national government holds all power. Read the quotation.

Idd, Which of the following Enlightenment thinkers. How were the ideas of Enlightnment thinkers influenced by the Scientific Revolution? Which of the following was one of the influences of the Roman Republic on the framing of the constitution?

A centralized gov. Elected representatives who are the voice of the people. Check my answers? Which of the following shows the influence of the U. Constitution on the Texas Constitution? Which of the following might a limited government be more likely to do than an unlimited government? Which type of government is limited in power? Oligarchy B. Dictatorship C. Totalitarian D. Constitutional monarchy.

Which accurately describes how the Enlightenment influenced social change? Read the sentence. Which most accurately. You can view more similar questions or ask a new question. Questions Social Studies What was the main belief of Enlightenment thinkers?

Similar Questions History 1. What was Social Studdies Which features of the Roman government limited individual power? The two consuls could veto Social Studies Which of the following statements best describes a federal system of government? The national government holds all power, How tall is the stratosphere tower in las vegas Studies could someone check my answer?

Social Studies Which of the following was one of the influences of the Roman Republic on the framing of the constitution? A Texas History Check my answers? Social Studies Which type of government is limited in power? Constitutional monarchy history How were the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced by the Scientific Revolution? History Which accurately describes how the Enlightenment influenced social change?

Which most accurately You can view more similar questions or ask a new question. Ask a New Question.

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What long-standing political belief did Enlightenment thinkers question? Monarchs rule by divine right. Part Two 5. What important idea did John Locke write about in the Two Treatises of Government? He argued that government should protect people's natural rights to life, liberty, and property 6. What was Voltaire's role in the Enlightenment Era? Nov 10,  · Hey guys! I would usually never ask for help with home work but this question seriously has me stumpped and i cant figure it out help please!! i really appreciate it =] What long-standing political belief did Enlightenment thinkers question? The Social Contract Divine Right Checks and Balances Monarchy Rule. Aug 27,  · Questions; Social Studies. What was the main belief of Enlightenment thinkers? (A) That government power should be limited. (B) That a republic was the best form of government. (C) That the use of reason was vital to improving society. (D) That a government should be strong enough to carry out its duties. ~I believe .

Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher and scientist, was one of the key figures in the political debates of the Enlightenment period. He introduced a social contract theory based on the relation between the absolute sovereign and the civil society. The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century.

It included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals, such as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.

The Enlightenment has also been hailed as the foundation of modern western political and intellectual culture. It brought political modernization to the west by introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies.

Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher and scientist, was one of the key figures in the political debates of the period. Hobbes was the first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed social contract theory that appeared in his work Leviathan. In it, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states and legitimate governments and creating an objective science of morality. As Leviathan was written during the English Civil War, much of the book is occupied with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil of discord and civil war.

Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without government, a condition which he calls the state of nature.

In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. So, in order to avoid it, people accede to a social contract and establish a civil society. According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede some rights for the sake of protection.

The individuals are thereby the authors of all decisions made by the sovereign. According to Hobbes, the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial, and ecclesiastical powers. Hobbes was one of the founders of modern political philosophy and political science. He also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy.

Hobbes also included a discussion of natural rights in his moral and political philosophy. Consequently, if humans wish to live peacefully, they must give up most of their natural rights and create moral obligations in order to establish political and civil society. Since by our human nature, we seek to maximize our well being, rights are prior to law, natural or institutional, and people will not follow the laws of nature without first being subjected to a sovereign power, without which all ideas of right and wrong are meaningless.

This marked an important departure from medieval natural law theories which gave precedence to obligations over rights. John Locke, an English philosopher and physician, is regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers, whose work greatly contributed to the development of the notions of social contract and natural rights.

His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Locke was born in in Wrington, Somerset, about 12 miles from Bristol, and grew up in the nearby town of Pensford. In , he was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London, and after completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford in Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time.

Through a friend, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Society, of which he eventually became a member. In , he moved to London to serve as a personal physician, and to resume his medical studies. He also served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietor of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics.

Locke fled to the Netherlands in , under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot, although there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme. He died in Locke never married nor had children. Petersburg, Russia. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perceptions.

It is divided into the First Treatise and the Second Treatise. The First Treatise is focused on the refutation of Sir Robert Filmer, in particular his Patriarcha , which argued that civil society was founded on a divinely sanctioned patriarchalism.

The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society. He goes on to explain the hypothetical rise of property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent of the people.

Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown. Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed that human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance.

Similarly to Hobbes, he assumed that the sole right to defend in the state of nature was not enough, so people established a civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government in a state of society. However, Locke never refers to Hobbes by name and may instead have been responding to other writers of the day.

He also advocated governmental separation of powers, and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances. These ideas would come to have profound influence on the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.

However, Locke did not demand a republic. Rather, he believed a legitimate contract could easily exist between citizens and a monarchy, an oligarchy, or in some mixed form. He defines the state of nature as a condition, in which humans are rational and follow natural law, and in which all men are born equal with the right to life, liberty and property.

However, when one citizen breaks the Law of Nature, both the transgressor and the victim enter into a state of war, from which it is virtually impossible to break free.

However, historians also note that Locke was a major investor in the English slave-trade through the Royal African Company. In addition, he participated in drafting the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina , which established a feudal aristocracy and gave a master absolute power over his slaves.

Because of his opposition to aristocracy and slavery in his major writings, some historians accuse Locke of hypocrisy and racism, and point out that his idea of liberty is reserved to Europeans or even the European capitalist class only. Montesquieu was a French political philosopher of the Enlightenment period, whose articulation of the theory of separation of powers is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Baron de Montesquieu, usually referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French lawyer, man of letters, and one of the most influential political philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment.

He was born in France in After losing both parents at an early age, he became a ward of his uncle, the Baron de Montesquieu. He became a counselor of the Bordeaux Parliament in A year later, he married Jeanne de Lartigue, a Protestant, who bore him three children. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of its Glorious Revolution , and had joined with Scotland in the Union of to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

These national transformations had a great impact on Montesquieu, who would refer to them repeatedly in his work. Montesquieu withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to study and writing. Besides writing works on society and politics, Montesquieu traveled for a number of years through Europe, including Austria and Hungary, spending a year in Italy and 18 months in England, where he became a freemason before resettling in France.

He was troubled by poor eyesight and was completely blind by the time he died from a high fever in Montesquieu, portrait by an unknown artist, c.

The Spirit of Laws The Spirit of the Laws is a treatise on political theory first published anonymously by Montesquieu in In , Thomas Nugent published the first English translation. Montesquieu spent around 21 years researching and writing The Spirit of the Laws , covering many things, including the law, social life, and the study of anthropology, and providing more than 3, commendations.

In this political treatise, Montesquieu pleaded in favor of a constitutional system of government and the separation of powers, the ending of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties and the law, and the idea that political institutions should reflect the social and geographical aspects of each community. Montesquieu defines three main political systems: republican, monarchical, and despotic. As he defines them, republican political systems vary depending on how broadly they extend citizenship rights—those that extend citizenship relatively broadly are termed democratic republics, while those that restrict citizenship more narrowly are termed aristocratic republics.

The distinction between monarchy and despotism hinges on whether or not a fixed set of laws exists that can restrain the authority of the ruler. If so, the regime counts as a monarchy.

If not, it counts as despotism. A second major theme in The Spirit of Laws concerns political liberty and the best means of preserving it. He distinguishes this view of liberty from two other, misleading views of political liberty.

The first is the view that liberty consists in collective self-government i. The second is the view that liberty consists of being able to do whatever one wants without constraint. Political liberty is not possible in a despotic political system, but it is possible, though not guaranteed, in republics and monarchies. Generally speaking, establishing political liberty requires two things: the separation of the powers of government, and the appropriate framing of civil and criminal laws so as to ensure personal security.

Montesquieu based this model on the Constitution of the Roman Republic and the British constitutional system. He took the view that the Roman Republic had powers separated so that no one could usurp complete power. In the British constitutional system, Montesquieu discerned a separation of powers among the monarch, Parliament, and the courts of law.

He also notes that liberty cannot be secure where there is no separation of powers, even in a republic. Pursuant to this requirement to frame civil and criminal laws appropriately to ensure political liberty, Montesquieu also argues against slavery and for the freedom of thought, speech, and assembly. Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher, who attacked the Catholic Church and advocated freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.

By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. In , his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to a French ambassador in the Netherlands, but Voltaire was forced to return to France after a scandalous affair. From early on, he had trouble with the authorities over his critiques of the government. These activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England.

He mainly argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20, letters and more than 2, books and pamphlets.

He was an outspoken advocate of several liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day. Most of his prose, including such genres as romance, drama, or satire, was written as polemics with the goal of conveying radical political and philosophical messages.


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