Etymology definition is - the history of a linguistic form (such as a word) shown by tracing its development since its earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is found, by tracing its transmission from one language to another, by analyzing it into its component parts, by identifying its cognates in other languages, or by tracing it and its cognates to a common ancestral form in an . noun, plural et∑y∑mol∑o∑gies. the derivation of a word. a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one .
For languages with a long written historyetymologists make use of texts, and what time is london underground open about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in meaning and formor when and how they entered the language.
Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about forms that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative methodlinguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary.
In this way, word roots in European languages, for example, can be traced all the way back to the origin of the Indo-European language family. Even etymollogy etymological research originally grew meainng the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian. The term etymon refers to a word or morpheme e.
For example, the Etymolkgy word candidushow to send a package fedex ground means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Relationships are often less transparent, however.
English place names such as WinchesterGloucesterTadcaster share in different modern forms a suffixed etymon that was once meaningful, Latin castrum 'fort'. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language changeborrowing i. While the origin of newly emerged words is often more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to tge change or semantic change.
Due to sound changeit is not readily obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit the former is originally a causative formation of the latter. It is even less obvious that bless is related to blood the former was originally a derivative with the meaning "to mark with blood". Semantic change may also occur. For example, the English how to tell if testosterone is low bead originally meant "prayer".
It acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English sometimes referred to as Anglo-Saxona West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, which is greatly simplified in modern English. What does adding sour cream to cake mix do elements of vocabulary are borrowed from French and other Romance languagesbut most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin.
When the Normans conquered England in see Norman Conquestthey brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Normanwhile the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. This led to many paired words of French and English origin. All these words, French and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal. Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages.
The variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who mostly ate meat an expensive commodity and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has passed into common folklore but has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies heavily on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples.
Spanish has contributed many words, particularly in the southwestern United States. Examples include buckarooalligatorrodeosavvyand states' names such as Colorado and Florida. Albinopalaverlingoverandahand coconut from Portuguese ; diva and prima donna from Italian. Smorgasbordslalomand ombudsman are from Swedish, Norwegian and Danish ; sauna from Finnish ; adobealcoholalgebra what is the meaning of etymology, algorithmapricotassassincalibercottonhazardjacketjarjulepmosqueMuslimorangesafarisofaand zero from Arabic often via other languages ; behemothhallelujahMewningjubileeand rabbi from Hebrew ; taigasteppeBolshevikand sputnik from Russian.
Bandannabungalowdungareesgurukarmaand pundit come from UrduHindi and ultimately Sanskrit ; curry from Tamil ; honchosushiand tsunami from Japanese ; dim sumgung howhat is the meaning of etymologykumquat and typhoon from Cantonese.
Kampong and etymologh are from Malay ; and boondocks from the Tagalog word for hills or ahat, bundok. Surprisingly few loanwords, however, come from other meanimg native to the British Isles. Those that exist include coraclecromlech and probably flannelgull and penguin from Welsh ; galore and whisky from Scottish How to combine video and subtitle file ; phoneytrousers wnat, and Tory from Irish ; and eerie and canny from Scots or related Northern English dialects.
Many Canadian English and American English words especially but not exclusively plant and animal names are loanwords from Indigenous American languagessuch as barbecuebayouchilichipmunkhoochhurricanehuskymesquiteopossumpecansquashtobogganand tomato.
The search for meaningful origins for familiar or strange words is far older than the modern understanding of linguistic evolution and the relationships of languages, which began no earlier than the 18th century. Plutarch employed etymologies insecurely based on fancied resemblances in sounds. Isidore of Seville 's Etymologiae was an encyclopedic tracing of "first things" that remained uncritically in use in Europe until the sixteenth century. Etymologicum genuinum is a grammatical encyclopedia edited at Constantinople in the ninth what is the meaning of etymology, one of several similar Byzantine works.
The thirteenth-century Legenda Aureaas written by Jacobus de Vorgaginebegins each vita of a saint with a fanciful excursus in the form of an etymology. The Sanskrit linguists and grammarians of ancient India were the first to make a comprehensive analysis of linguistics and etymology.
The study of Sanskrit etymology has provided Western scholars with the basis of historical linguistics and modern etymology. Four of how to make yellow eyes white again most famous Sanskrit linguists are:.
These linguists were not the earliest Sanskrit grammarians, however. They followed a line of ancient grammarians of Sanskrit who lived several centuries earlier etymologj Sakatayana of whom very little is known. The earliest of attested etymologies can be found in Vedic literature in the philosophical explanations of the BrahmanasAranyakasand Upanishads.
The analyses of Sanskrit grammar done by the previously mentioned linguists involved extensive studies on the etymology called Nirukta or Vyutpatti in Sanskrit of Sanskrit words, because the ancient Indo-Aryans considered sound and speech itself etymoligy be sacred and, for them, the words of the sacred Vedas contained deep encoding of the mysteries of the soul and God.
One of the earliest philosophical texts of the Classical Greek period to address etymology was the Socratic dialogue Cratylus c. During much of the dialogue, Socrates makes guesses as to the origins of many words, including the names of the gods. In his Odes Pindar spins complimentary etymologies to flatter his patrons. Plutarch Life of Numa Pompilius spins an etymology for pontifexwhile explicitly dismissing the obvious, and actual "bridge-builder":. Others make the word refer to exceptions of impossible cases; the priests were to perform all the duties possible to them; if anything lay beyond their power, the exception was not to be cavilled at.
The most common opinion is the most absurd, which derives this word from pons, and assigns the priests the title of bridge-makers. The sacrifices performed on the bridge were amongst the most sacred and ancient, and the keeping and repairing of the bridge attached, like any other public sacred office, to the priesthood.
Isidore of Seville compiled a volume of etymologies to illuminate the triumph of religion. Each saint's legend in Jacob de Voragine 's Legenda Aurea begins with an etymological discourse on the saint's name:.
Lucy is said of light, and light is beauty in beholding, after that S. Ambrose saith: The nature of light is such, she is gracious in beholding, she spreadeth over lf without lying down, she passeth in going right without crooking by right long line; and it is without dilation of tarrying, and therefore it is showed the blessed Lucy hath beauty of virginity without any corruption; essence of charity without disordinate love; rightful going and devotion to God, without squaring out of the way; right long line by continual work without negligence of slothful ks.
In Lucy is said, the way etymoloogy light. Etymology in the modern sense emerged in the late 18th-century European academia, within the context of the wider " Age of Enlightenment ," although preceded by 17th century pioneers such as Marcus Zuerius van BoxhornGerardus VossiusStephen SkinnerElisha Colesand William Wotton. The origin of modern historical linguistics is often traced to Sir William Jonesa Welsh philologist living in Indiawho in observed the genetic relationship between SanskritGreek and Latin.
Jones published his The Sanscrit Language inlaying the foundation for the field what types of slavery still exist today Indo-European linguistics. The study of etymology in Germanic philology was introduced by Rasmus Christian Rask in the early 19th century and elevated to a high standard with the German Dictionary of the Brothers Grimm.
The successes of the comparative approach culminated in the Neogrammarian school of the late 19th century. Still in the 19th century, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche used etymological strategies principally and most famously in On the Genealogy of Moralsbut also elsewhere to argue that moral values have definite historical specifically, cultural origins where modulations in meaning regarding certain concepts such as "good" and "evil" show how these ideas had changed over timeóaccording to which value-system appropriated them.
This strategy gained popularity in the 20th century, and philosophers, such as Jacques Derridahave used etymologies to indicate former meanings of words to de-center the "violent hierarchies" of Western philosophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and fhe have changed over time. Not to be confused with Entomology or Etiology.
For other uses, see Etymology disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Outline History Index. General linguistics. Applied linguistics. Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.
Theoretical frameworks. Main article: History of the English language. Further information: Loanword and Lists of English words by country or language of origin. Main article: Nirukta. Main article: Medieval etymology. Further information: Comparative method.
Linguistics etymolpgy. Retrieved Online Etymology Dictionary. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN DS Brewer. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. April Categories : Etymology. Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles needing additional references from May All articles mwaning additional references Articles containing French-language text Articles to be expanded from April All articles to be expanded Articles with empty sections from April All articles with empty sections Articles using small message boxes Commons category link from Wikidata Articles with Curlie links Mfaning articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles etymolog LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with MA tye Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
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/ ?et?.??m??.l?.d?i / the study of the origin and history of words, or a study of this type relating to one particular word: At university she developed an interest in etymology. A list of selected words and their etymologies is printed at the back of the book. Noun. 1. etymology - a history of a word. account, chronicle, history, story - a record or narrative description of past events; "a history of France"; "he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president"; "the story of exposure to lead". What does etymology mean? The branch of linguistics dealing with word origin and development. (noun).
An example of etymology is tracing a word back to its Latin roots. The etymology may be wrong, but this is the popular sense of the word. This etymology , however, is not much in favour now. Home Dictionary Meanings Etymology. Filters 0. The branch of linguistics dealing with word origin and development. The study of the origin of words. Etymology is not to be confused with entomology, the branch of zoology concerned with the study of insects.
See also bug. The branch of linguistics that deals with etymologies. The definition of etymology is the source of a word, or the study of the source of specific words. The origin and development of a word, affix, phrase, etc. For usage examples of this term, see the citations page.
The origin and historical development of a linguistic form as shown by determining its basic elements, earliest known use, and changes in form and meaning, tracing its transmission from one language to another, identifying its cognates in other languages, and reconstructing its ancestral form where possible.
Origin of etymology. Etymology Sentence Examples. The etymology of the word Pali is uncertain. Related articles. The Mystery Explained. Words near etymology in the Dictionary.