Glossary of policy debate terms
Dec 07, · [Explain what x, y, and z does] The resolution addresses all of the major points that were brought up in debate. We encourage the committee to vote in favor of the resolution.” Another example: “The Netherlands is against this resolution because it is vague. Look at clauses x, y, and ctcwd.comted Reading Time: 3 mins. ctcwd.com policy debate, a resolution or topic is a normative statement which the affirmative team affirms and the negative team ctcwd.comtions are selected annually by affiliated schools.
In an argument how to prevent scabs on potatoes debatea proposition is a statement that affirms or denies something. As explained below, a proposition may function as a premise or a conclusion in a syllogism or enthymeme. In formal debates, a proposition may also be called a topic, motionor resolution.
Etymology From the Latin, "to set forth". An argument is not a mere collection of propositions, but a group resolugion a particular, rather formal, structure. Thus, in the three propositions that follow in the universal deductive categorical syllogism, the first two are premises and the third the conclusion :.
Premises and conclusions require each other. A proposition standing alone is neither a premise nor a conclusion. Aldisert, "Logic in Forensic Science. Wecht and John T. This means that a good thesis is crucial to your essay. For argumentative or what a wonderful day quotes essays, the thesis is sometimes called a major propositionor a claim.
Through your major proposition, you take a definite position in a debate, and by taking a strong position, you give your essay its avatar the last airbender how to draw edge.
Your readers must know what your position is and must see that you have supported your main idea with convincing minor points. Muller and Harvey S. Wiener, The Short Prose Reader12th ed. McGraw-Hill, Propositions for which people argue are controversial and have one or more individuals presenting the case for the proposition while others present the case against it. Every debater is an dbate the purpose of each speaker is to gain the belief of the audience for his side.
Argument is the core of the debate speech—the superior debater must be superior in the use of argument. The chief means of persuasion in debate is the logical mode. International Debate Education Association, First of all, it is possible to express a proposition using any kind of grammatical what is a promo code. Interrogative, optative, or exclamatory sentences, for example, can, whhat appropriate contextual stage setting, be used to express propositions.
Debte the interests of clarity, therefore, it will often be helpful to paraphrase an author's resolutiion, in expressing a premise or conclusion, into the form of a declarative sentence that transparently expresses a proposition. Second, not every proposition expressed in dbeate argumentative prose passage occurs within that passage as either a resoltuion or a conclusion, or as a proper part of a premise or conclusion.
We'll refer to these propositions, which are neither identical with nor embedded in any premise or conclusion, and to the sentences by which they are expressed, as noise. A noisy proposition makes a claim that is extraneous resilution the content of the argument in question. Cambridge University Whaf, Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.
Cite this Article Format. Nordquist, Richard. Propositions in Debate Definition and Examples. Fallacies of Relevance: Appeal to Authority. Definition and Examples of Conclusions in Arguments. Premise Definition and Examples in Arguments. Definition and Examples of Valid Arguments. Definition and Examples of Syllogisms. Contradictory Premises in an Argument. Positive Rhetoric: Affirmative Sentences. Tips on How resolutino Write an Argumentative Essay.
The side that “affirms” the resolution (is “pro” the issue). For example, the affirmative side in a debate using the resolution of policy, Resolved: The United States federal government should implement a poverty reduction program for its citizens, would advocate for federal government implementation of a poverty reduction program. Sep 05, · than briefs,"; etc. In many debate formats, there is a requirement that a policy resolution (a resolution regarding the policies followed by some organization or government) represent a change from current policy, so that the opposition team will be defending the status quo. A debate is a discussion or structured contest about an issue or a resolution. A formal debate involves two sides: one supporting a resolution and one opposing it. Such a debate is bound by rules previously agreed upon. Debates may be judged in order to declare a winning side. Debates,File Size: 53KB.
This is a glossary of policy debate terms. In policy debate also called cross-examination debate in some circuits, namely the University Interscholastic League of Texas , the Affirmative is the team that affirms the resolution and seeks to uphold it by developing, proposing, and advocating for a policy plan that satisfies the mandates of the resolution beyond a reasonable doubt.
By affirming the resolution, the Affirmative often abbreviated "AFF" or "Aff" incurs the burden of proof , which must be met if the Affirmative's policy plan is to be successful. The Negative side , in contrast, is the team that negates the affirmation. More specifically, the Negative abbreviated "NEG" or "Neg" refutes the policy plan that is presented by the Affirmative. The Affirmative team has the advantage of speaking both first and last, but it lacks the benefit of back-to-back speeches afforded to the Negative team in the minute block of time known as the "Negatice block".
In policy debate , an agent counterplan is a counterplan that proposes to do affirmative's plan or part of it with another agent. Like most mainstream argument forms in policy debate, they are presumed to be legitimate, though it is possible for the affirmative to defeat them on the grounds that they are illegitimate by arguing that they are unfair, uneducational, or illogical.
Because they make it possible for the negative to win without refuting most of the claims of the affirmative case mooting much of the 1AC offense , they are a key component in many negative strategies.
Most affirmatives try to avoid domestic USFG agent counterplans e. On international topics, international agent counterplans cannot be similarly avoided, although many consider them object fiat or otherwise theoretically suspect. Some debate theorists e. In debate, judges consider or score the debate, and ultimately vote for the winner of the debate round on a ballot. The purpose of the ballot is what the judge 's vote stands for or is intended to affirm.
For example, a team might say "the role of the ballot is to vote for whomever saves more lives in third world countries". The opposing team might say "role is irrelevant and the debate rewards the best arguments, not the simulations". The difference between a vote and a role is not about pretending how to save lives in third world countries, which academic debate purports to do, but not as if one is in a hero role, but arguing why to save lives in third world countries because that is normatively feasible and desirable, straightforwardly.
The ballot is also where judges can comment that certain speakers excelled at rhetoric or oratory or argumentation or teamwork or knows the material with great depth and breadth. Those debaters in formal, organized debate, get speaker awards based on judges' opinions of the speakers' performances. In policy debate , constructive speeches are the first four speeches of a debate round. Constructive speeches are each followed by a 3-minute cross-examination period.
In general, constructive arguments are the only time that a team can make new arguments. The last four speeches of the debate are reserved for refutations of arguments already made. In current policy debate, the " first affirmative constructive " 1AC is used to present the " plan ". Whether all new " off-case arguments " must be presented in the " first negative constructive " is a point of contention. It is a classic debate mistake for an affirmative to read both link and impact turns.
For example, a negative team might read a disadvantage saying that the plan will collapse the economy, and that economic collapse causes nuclear war. An affirmative would double turn the disadvantage by saying that actually, the plan would prevent the economy from collapsing, and that economic collapse is crucial to prevent nuclear war. Therefore, the affirmative is now arguing that the plan will cause nuclear war.
While either of these arguments alone turns the disadvantage, the two arguments together double-turn. The negative can grant these two arguments, and the affirmative is stuck arguing that the plan would cause nuclear war. In policy debate , a drop refers to an argument which was not answered by the opposing team. Normally, a "dropped" or conceded argument is considered unrefuted for the purposes of evaluating a debate.
Debaters tend to use this as a general rule while evaluating a debate round. If a team says nothing against an argument, then because 'silence is compliance', they must agree to whatever the argument was. An argument is normally considered dropped if it is not answered in the speech in which the opposing team has the first opportunity to answer it.
Generally, in the first affirmative rebuttal , the speaker is required to answer all arguments made so far by the negative team. This is because if the affirmative chooses to respond to the arguments in the second affirmative rebuttal , it reaffirms affirmative ground and strength because the affirmative gets the last speech, leaving the negative with no way to refute any argument made.
Many debaters refer to dropped arguments as "conceded," "unanswered," or "unrefuted" or "stands in good stead". Some judges will not evaluate some arguments, even when they are dropped, such as arguments labeled "voting issues" but which are unsupported by warrants.
For example, "the sky is blue, vote affirmative" is an argument that most judges would believe does not need to be answered. Debaters sometimes use the "dropped egg" argument to refer to arguments dropped by the opposing team, stating that "A dropped argument is like a dropped egg. Once an egg is dropped, it cannot be fixed or whole again. Therefore, you should disregard their argument This argument is optimal for lay, or parent, judges who need a reference to real life to understand the sophisticated arguments in a policy debate round.
Fiat Latin for 'let it be done' is a theoretical, "throwaway assumption", a presumption about fiat entanglements in implementation being nongermane, in policy debate — derived from the word should in the resolution — whereby the crux of the resolution is debated, rather than the political feasibility of enactment of a given plan ,  allowing an affirmative team to proceed with proposing a plan.
An example: a student at a high school debate argues that increases in United States support of United Nations peacekeeping may help to render the United States more multilateral. Such an increase is very unlikely to occur from the debate judge voting for the Affirmative, but fiat allows the student to side-step this practicality, and argue on the substance of the idea at the level of an ideal, as if it could be immediately enacted. Because of the presumption of fiat, enactment is considered the same as enforcement, which is quite different from merely ratification or adoption of the resolution.
Presumption grants that the agency, such as Congress, are sincere and diligent civil servants who do not quibble over the plan as any part of their regular duties, the presumption of "perfect obedience for the plan's enactment". However, in "pure" policy debate without an Affirmative plan, fiat is also ignored yet does not assume but has to account for the moral agency of the resolution.
There is no overarching, accepted definition of the legislative pathways which constitute "normal means," but clarification about what an affirmative team regards as "normal means" can be obtained as part of cross-examination by the negative team. In many policy debates, debaters argue about the reversibility "fiated" actions. For example, in a debate about whether the United States Federal Government should implement new regulations to reduce climate change, a Negative team might argue that regulations would be repealed if the Republican Party gained control of the Presidency or Congress.
Various interpretations of fiats have been constructed in order to promote more realistic political punditry that is different from policy debate. For example, if the plan's agency is C. Significance can be argued that capturing the status quo's intrinsic means gives a Solvency boost without destabilization that would result in other harms or the same status quo harms.
Intrinsic means grants justification of status quo capabilities but none of its inherency vis-a-vis the resolution. Fiat is not taken for granted but is granted to end political discourse, palace intrigue, vote-getting in election politicking, identity politicking, and promote academic debate on policy matters while disregarding the exact partisan composition needed to implement a plan. For example, both Affirmative and Negative teams can cite political double-whammies or backlash as disadvantages : if United States troops are sent to a foreign country, the majority political party that was pro-deployment will not be re-elected and cannot sustain their military objectives, the quagmire argument.
It does not matter who is in power and their party affiliation, it matters that whosoever is in power already can benefit from the plan, if that is the argument. Usually, Affirmative plans are not about re-electing officials but are honed toward nonelected groups and other countries as beneficiaries of the plan.
In policy debate, fiating the plan is almost always granted without argument, to help debaters and judges evaluate the merits of a plan as though the plan happens. From there, debate ensues, and it is valid to argue that the Affirmative plan is more expensive in dollars than the Negative counterplan, for example, where fiat is granted to both sides. Fiat almost always does not have to be debated in policy debate but should be taught by coaches and understood by debaters for what they are doing in the activity of academic policy debate.
Note that these types of arguments about fiat, that incorrectly assumes fiat is a process argument, are rarely distinguishable from counter-resolutions and nontopicality and are therefore frowned upon by judges:. Harms are a stock issue in policy debate which refer to problems inherent in the status quo. These problems are cited as actual occurring presently outside the activity of the debate round in the status quo.
Harms are different from threats, which are potential harms not currently occurring in the status quo, but with the possibility of occurring in the future. In the case of potential harms, the policy offered by the affirmative functions as a preventive measure or "sure deterrence". As is so often the case in academic debate, the bigger the harms, the bigger the impacts. For example, many teams enjoy running the nuclear outfall Harms plank, drawing mushroom clouds on their debate round flowsheets.
It has also been argued that "small things can have big impacts", giving a boost to the Significance stock issue. An example of this is to argue that solving dirty nukes made of plutonium is more advantageous than exploiting further mutually assured destruction deterrence theory. A Negative strategy that does not give direct clash to the Affirmative plan argues against the resolution's hidden harms without arguing against the plan, the unmasking harms strategy that helps the underprepared Negative team who do not have much experience with the Affirmative plan's details.
This strategy is useful in the early rounds of a debate tournament. Example : If the negative argued the plan would cause nuclear war, which is bad, the affirmative could impact turn by arguing that nuclear war is an on-face positive event perhaps in preventing the development of even more deadly weapons in the future. An impact turn requires impact calculus , that is: the reasons nuclear war is good must outweigh the reasons why nuclear war is bad.
Very often, kritiks are subject to impact turns on account of their Grounds missed opportunities, sometimes also their nebulous impacts; a critique of the state declaring that the purported increase in state power that the plan creates is bad because it unduly exercises power and forces citizens into doing things that they would not choose to do otherwise might be impact turned by first mitigating the harm the state does and then saying that other things the state does — such as safeguarding domestic tranquility — are good.
Inherency is a stock issue in policy debate that refers to a barrier that keeps a harm from being solved in the status quo. There are four main types of inherency: . Despite the classification of these four as the "main types" of inherency, the existence of other types are subject to theory much like a substantial part of the lexicon for the event.
In higher level policy debate inherency has become a non issue. There are some judges who will not vote on it, and negative teams do not run it often because it may contradict uniqueness arguments on disadvantages. However, inherency arguments are more likely to be run with a "Stocks Issues" judge who could hold that the absence of an inherent barrier is enough to merit an affirmative loss. In doctrinal disputes, Inherency is only a nonissue when there is organizational consensus.
Policy debate ensues, of the academic and nonacademic varieties, in re-evaluating or "rescuing" Inherency. For example, the Status Quo Inherency is used in academic debate to scope resolutions, affirmative plans, and the types of evidence in a formal academic debate. In Lincoln-Douglas debate, as opposed to policy debate, there is no need to "rescue Inherency", because the status quo is not required for the debate. The classical form of Inherency belongs to the Negative as Status Quo Inherency, which succinctly states that "there is unknown danger in change".
Argumentation Inherency, a stock issue, does not refer so much to plans and counterplans in policy debate or the resolution but to fairness in competitive debate. Affirmative Inherency does not have to explicitly overcome apathy or even be mentioned, because Argumentation Inherency endows the Affirmative with merit, for example, for merely attempting to run a plan on the resolution, which prima facie fulfills the resolution in a particular case, the plan.
There are Affirmative positions that support the resolution without running a plan, and they tend to do so on Inherency only, a powerful strategy. Negative Inherency tends to strategize how one ought to vote about the resolution, accepting that the terms of the debate is fair but that the resolution ought to be defeated. Just as stock issue debate does not require the Affirmative to run a plan, stock issue debate does not require the Negative to completely defeat the Affirmative but merely negate the resolution on lack of justifiability, or Negative Justification.
In policy debate, failing Historical Inherency is a sure way for the Affirmative to not win the debate round. If something has already been done, the outcome is known, regardless whether the phenomenon of the results still exist in the status quo or has somehow returned. Likewise, arguments by the Negative that ignore historical precedence that tend to be the same as or worse than the status quo's current harms, does not give any automatic advantage to the Affirmative either.
For example, in-round, if in Year A the resolution says "substantially change" and many teams have already debated that, and in Year B the resolution says "substantially increase", on the same topic, the winning debates in Year A already have many winning arguments that can be presented in Year B.