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ZeroHedge - On a long enough timeline, the survival rate for everyone drops to zero. Spain (Spanish: Espana, ()), formally the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espana), is a country in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian ctcwd.com territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic.
The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to doess north and northeast by DodsAndorraand the Bay of Biscay ; and to the spanosh and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean respectively. With an area ofkm 2sq miSpain is the largest country in Southern Europethe second-largest country in Western Sanish and the European Unionand the fourth-largest country by area on the European continent.
With a population exceeding Through migration and settlement of bbonanza, various cultures developed doees the region alongside PhoenicianGreekCeltic and Carthaginian.
The Visigoths emerged as the dominant faction by the fifth century, with their kingdom spanning much of the peninsula. In the early dows century, the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphateushering in over years of Muslim rule. Islamic Spain became a major economic and intellectual center, with the city of Cordoba being among the largest and richest in Europe. Over the next seven centuries, an intermittent southward expansion of these kingdoms—metahistorically framed as a reconquest, or Reconquista —culminated with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity, the Nasrid Kingdom of Granadain That same year, Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World on behalf of the Catholic Monarchswhose dynastic union of Castile and Aragon is sometimes considered the emergent Spain as a unified country.
From the 16th until the early 19th century, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in historywhich was among the first global empires ; its immense cultural and linguistic legacy includes over million Hispanophones making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native languageafter Mandarin Spanishh.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a highly developed country  and a high income countrywith the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixteenth-largest by PPP.
While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto member of the group. The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalismeaning "city of the western world".
Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that spnaish Iberian Spanksh constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the mfan of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their sppanish, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.
Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the IberiansBasques and Celts. Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empirebecoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquestthe peninsula came fully what does bonanza mean in spanish Roman rule. During the early Middle Ages it came under Visigothic rule, and then much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa.
In a process that took centuriesthe small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Whzt state fell inthe same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for one and a half centuries, and the largest bonnanza empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic conflict in Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable.
Spain suffered a devastating civil war in the s and then came under the rule of an authoritarian governmentwhich oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually, democracy was restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges.
Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids spanjsh. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35, years ago. The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts.
The Iberians inhabited the Spwnish side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west.
Several cities were founded along the coast by Phoeniciansand trading outposts and colonies were what is the largest dinosaur by Greeks in the East. Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of bonazna Iberian Peninsulathey retained control of it for over six centuries.
Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian what does bonanza mean in spanish were gradually Romanised Latinised at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Men aristocratic class.
Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation dors, some of which remain in use. The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began inwhen the Germanic Suebi and Vandalstogether with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper.
These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early and ravaged Gaul. The Suebi established a kingdom spaniwh what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by before crossing over to How to become a mermaid Africa in and taking Carthage in As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.
The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spaniain the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule.
These Visigothsor Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaricturned towards the Iberian Peninsulawith Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion.
Wallia extended his rule ln most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Euric how to make marshmallow skewers, who ehat an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia.
Euric was also the first king what is the usual outcome of the flu give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Bonwnza kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Spanisj of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Deos II and Amalaric lost their lives.
Athanagildhaving risen against King Agilacalled in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions dies the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. Hermengildthe king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians.
Recaredson of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by doew father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish jean. Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain. Intermarriage between Bonana and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.
Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian coes to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Isidore created the first western encyclopedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages. In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered — by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa.
These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Only a small wpanish in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.
Legend has it that Count Julianthe governor of Ceuta, in what you pawn i will redeem pdf for the violation of his daughter, Florinda spanidh, by King Rodericinvited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula. Under Islamic lawChristians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. This status permitted Christians and Jews spanis practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.
Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by des tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab nonanza from the Middle East.
Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Some important philosophers at the time were AverroesIbn Arabi and Maimonides. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture.
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states Arab, Berber, and Slav allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains. The Reconquista Reconquest was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula.
The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the ,ean of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in doez, Muslim forces were driven from Galiciawhich was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom.
The Kingdom of Castileformed from Leonese territory, boannza its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman bonaza influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism. Muslim armies had also moved north spanieh the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at what does bonanza mean in spanish Battle of PoitiersFrankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the s.
Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon. The Islamic transmission of the classics is the apanish Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. The Castilian language—more commonly known especially later in history and at present as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Bonazna Latinas did other Romance languages of Spain like spamish CatalanAsturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe.
The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms whta the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean.
In Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Xpanish dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull.
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Paramilitaries Far-right. Guerrillas Far-left. The reasons for fighting vary from group to group. The FARC and other guerrilla movements claim to be fighting for the rights of the poor in Colombia to protect them from government violence and to provide social justice through communism. The paramilitary groups claim to be reacting to perceived threats by guerrilla movements. According to a study by Colombia's National Centre for Historical Memory , , people have died in the conflict between and , most of them civilians , civilians and 40, fighters , and more than five million civilians were forced from their homes between and , generating the world's second-largest population of internally displaced persons IDPs.
In total, one in three of the 7. On 23 June , the Colombian government and the FARC rebels signed a historic ceasefire deal, bringing them closer to ending more than five decades of conflict. The armed conflict in Colombia emerged due to a combination of economic, political and social factors in the country. Some scholars even trace it back to the s, with the unequal distribution of land in the country which has been one of the main causes and disputes of the conflict throughout the years.
In the early period s , guerrilla groups like the FARC , the ELN and others adopted a slogan of greater equality through communism,  which came to be supported by many people, mostly in low-income and rural areas of the country. However, the balance of power and influence shifted in the mids when Colombia granted greater political and fiscal autonomy to local governments, strengthening the position of the Colombian Government in more remote regions of the country.
However, between and right-wing paramilitaries, with the help and support from parts of the government, murdered and disappeared 4, members and supporters of the party, including two presidential candidates, six of 16 congressmen, 17 regional representatives and councilmen. In the s the level of violence increased in many parts of the country as a result of the beginning of the drug trafficking.
Trafficking had begun in the s and 70s, when a group of Americans began to smuggle marijuana. Later, the American Mafia [ citation needed ] began to establish drug trafficking in Colombia in cooperation with local marijuana producers.
Organized crime in Colombia grew increasingly powerful in the s and 80s with the introduction of massive drug trafficking to the United States from Colombia. After the offensive, many security indicators improved. Gil Kerlikowske to announce that Colombia was no longer the world's biggest producer of cocaine.
After almost four years of peace negotiations, the Colombian state and the FARC announced consensus on a 6-point plan towards peace and reconciliation. The document addresses the "multiple reasons for the conflict, the principle factors and circumstances that made it possible and the most notable impacts on the population", and explains Colombia's armed conflict in terms of international law. The origin of the armed conflict in Colombia goes back to with agrarian disputes over the Sumapaz and Tequendama regions.
Colombia at the time was a banana republic , dominated by foreign monopolies specifically the United Fruit Company. The United Fruit Company existed to buy large amounts of agricultural products in Latin America at cheap prices, then resell the crops in foreign markets for inflated amounts. Local farmers were largely impoverished and were forced to grow specific crops creating a monoculture in which farmers depended on the company for all food, products and wages.
The United Fruit Company would usually pay their workers in coupons , which was worthless outside company stores, the stores would charge extravagant prices compared to what workers earned. As well as this the system of employment was usually in which farmers would be forced to sell their property to the United Fruit Company and then be indebted to the company having to work on the land and pay back the company. The United Fruit Company would hire private militaries to enforce its power, their purpose was to put down worker calls for reform, destroy unions, and put down worker revolutions.
Any potential threat to the United Fruit Company would be overturned in a company backed coups, which would prop up friendly puppet politicians and support right wing militias to maintain power. Workers would often organize and strike against these conditions, and would form local militias against the United Fruit Company.
This would often lead to conflict between the United Fruit Company and the workers. The strike quickly grew becoming the largest strike in all of Colombia's history, with many Socialists , Anarchists, Marxists and Leftists joining and organizing the strike. The United Fruit Company demanded that the workers disband and the Union should disband. After a standoff with the strikers, the Colombian Army shot into the crowd of strikers leading to —2, people to be massacred in what became known as the Banana massacre.
After this the Colombian Public was outraged, and it led to an explosion of Leftists and Revolutionary organizations, in Bogota leftists students protested and organized against the government of Colombia, organized to overthrow the Colombian Government.
Workers began rioting and destroying the Colombian capital Bogota, leading to the death of 4, people. Joined by fellow Leftists a brutal war was fought for over 10 years leading to the death of , people and the destruction of much of the country, resulting in a peace settlement and the changing of power to the Colombian Conservative Party to the Colombian Liberal Party and the Colombian Communist Party in As La Violencia wound down, most self-defense and guerrilla units made up of Liberal Party supporters demobilized, but at the same time some former Liberals and active Communist groups continued operating in several rural enclaves.
The goal of the FARC, among other things, was redistribution of land that would benefit poor peasant farmers like Marin, along with the desire to establish a communist state. In , an exclusively bipartisan political alternation system, known as the National Front, resulted from an agreement between the Liberal and Conservative parties. The agreement had come as a result of the two parties attempting to find a final political solution to the decade of mutual violence and unrest, remaining in effect until In the early s Colombian Army units loyal to the National Front began to attack peasant communities.
This happened throughout Colombia with the Colombian army considering that these peasant communities were enclaves for bandits and Communists. Unlike the rural FARC, which had roots in the previous Liberal peasant struggles, the ELN was mostly an outgrowth of university unrest and would subsequently tend to follow a small group of charismatic leaders, including Camilo Torres Restrepo.
Both guerrilla groups remained mostly operational in remote areas of the country during the rest of the s. The Colombian government organized several short-lived counter-guerrilla campaigns in the late s and early s. These efforts were aided by the U.
By , another challenge to the state's authority and legitimacy had come from the 19th of April Movement M , leading to a new phase in the conflict. The M was a mostly urban guerrilla group, founded in response to an alleged electoral fraud during the final National Front election of Misael Pastrana Borrero — and the forced removal of former president Gustavo Rojas Pinilla.
Under the latest such decree, president Turbay had implemented security policies that, though of some military value against the M in particular, were considered highly questionable both inside and outside Colombian circles due to numerous accusations of military human rights abuses against suspects and captured guerrillas. Betancur directed peace feelers at all the insurgents, and negotiated a cease-fire with the FARC at La Uribe , Meta , after a release of many guerrillas imprisoned during the previous effort to overpower them.
A truce was also arranged with the M The ELN , however, rejected any negotiations and continued to rebuild through the use of extortion and threats, in particular against oil companies of European and U.
At the same time as these developments, the growing illegal drug trade was becoming increasingly important to all participants in the Colombian conflict. Guerrillas and newly wealthy drug lords had mutually uneven relations and numerous incidents occurred between them. Eventually the kidnapping of drug cartel family members by guerrillas led to the creation in of the Muerte a Secuestradores "Death to Kidnappers" death squad MAS.
The cartels responded by bribing or murdering numerous public officials, politicians and others. Their victims included Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla , whose assassination in led the Betancur administration to confront the drug lords directly. The first negotiated cease-fire with the M ended when the guerrillas resumed fighting in The M claimed that the cease-fire had not been fully respected by official security forces, alleged that several of its members had suffered threats and assaults, and questioned the government's real willingness to implement any accords.
The Betancur administration in turn criticized the M's actions and questioned its commitment to the peace process, while at the same time continuing to advance high-profile negotiations with the FARC. On November 6, , the M stormed the Colombian Palace of Justice and held the Supreme Court magistrates hostage, intending to put president Betancur on trial.
The military responded with force and in the ensuing crossfire some people lost their lives, including most of the guerrillas several high-ranking operatives among them and 12 Supreme Court Judges. Meanwhile, individual FARC members initially joined the UP leadership in representation of the guerrilla command, though most of the guerrilla's chiefs and militiamen did not demobilize nor disarm, as that was not a requirement of the process at that point in time.
Tension soon significantly increased, as both sides began to accuse each other of not respecting the cease-fire. In October Jaime Pardo Leal , who had been the UP's presidential candidate the previous year, was assassinated amid a wave of violence in which thousands of the party's members perished at the hands of death squads.
The Virgilio Barco Vargas — administration, in addition to continuing to handle the difficulties of the complex negotiations with the guerrillas, also inherited a particularly chaotic confrontation against the drug lords, who were engaged in a campaign of terrorism and murder in response to government moves in favor of their extradition overseas.
The M and several smaller guerrilla groups were successfully incorporated into a peace process as the s ended and the '90s began, which culminated in the elections for a Constituent Assembly of Colombia that would write a new constitution, which took effect in Both parties nevertheless never completely broke off some amount of political contacts for long, as some peace feelers continued to exist, leading to short rounds of conversations in both Caracas , Venezuela and Tlaxcala , Mexico Despite the signing of several documents, no concrete results were achieved when the talks ended.
FARC military activity increased throughout the bulk of the s as the group continued to grow in wealth from both kidnapping and drug-related activities, while drug crops rapidly spread throughout the countryside.
The guerrillas protected many of the coca growers from eradication campaigns and allowed them to grow and commercialize coca in exchange for a "tax" either in money or in crops. In this context, FARC had managed to recruit and train more fighters, beginning to use them in concentrated attacks in a novel and mostly unexpected way. This led to a series of high-profile raids and attacks against Colombian state bases and patrols, mostly in the southeast of Colombia but also affecting other areas.
In mid, a civic protest movement made up of an estimated , coca growers from Putumayo and part of Cauca began marching against the Colombian government to reject its drug war policies, including fumigations and the declaration of special security zones in some departments.
Different analysts have stressed that the movement itself fundamentally originated on its own, but at the same time, FARC heavily encouraged the marchers and actively promoted their demands both peacefully and through the threat of force.
Additionally, in and , town councilmen in dozens of municipalities of the south of the country were threatened, killed, kidnapped, forced to resign or to exile themselves to department capitals by the FARC and the ELN. Other FARC attacks against Police bases in Miraflores , Guaviare and La Uribe , Meta in August killed more than a hundred soldiers, policemen and civilians, and resulted in the capture or kidnapping of a hundred more.
These attacks, and the dozens of members of the Colombian security forces taken prisoner by the FARC, contributed to increasingly shaming the government of president Ernesto Samper Pizano — in the eyes of sectors of public and political opinion. He was already the target of numerous critics due to revelations of a drug-money scandal surrounding his presidential campaign.
Perceptions of corruption due to similar scandals led to Colombia's decertification as a country cooperating with the United States in the war on drugs in when the effects of the measure were temporarily waived , and The Samper administration reacted against FARC's attacks by gradually abandoning numerous vulnerable and isolated outposts in more than , km 2 of the rural countryside, instead concentrating Army and Police forces in the more heavily defended strongholds available, which allowed the guerrillas to more directly mobilize through and influence events in large areas of rural territory which were left with little or no remaining local garrisons.
Other contacts between the guerrillas and government, as well as with representatives of religious and economic sectors, continued throughout and Altogether, these events were interpreted by some Colombian and foreign analysts as a turning point in the armed confrontation, giving the FARC the upper hand in the military and political balance, making the Colombian government a target of critics from some observers who concluded that its weakness was being evidenced, perhaps even overshadowing a future guerrilla victory in the middle term.
A leaked U. Defense Intelligence Agency DIA report went so far as to speculate that this could be possible within 5 years if the guerrilla's rate of operations was kept up without effective opposition.
Some viewed this report as inaccurate and alarmist, claiming that it did not properly take into account many factors, such as possible actions that the Colombian state and the U. Also during this period, paramilitary activities increased, both legally and illegally.
The groups were left without legal support after a decision by the Colombian Constitutional Court which restricted many of their prerogatives and demanded stricter oversight. A member of the Conservative Party, Pastrana defeated Liberal Party candidate Horacio Serpa in a run-off election marked by high voter turn-out and little political unrest. The new president's program was based on a commitment to bring about a peaceful resolution of Colombia's longstanding civil conflict and to cooperate fully with the United States to combat the trafficking of illegal drugs.
Using U. In the attack, three civilians were killed, and several others were wounded as the military attacked hospitals, churches, ambulances, and residential areas. FARC rebels were forced to flee the area, and many were killed or wounded. The Colombian government claimed that this was a significant victory, while human rights groups claimed this as proof that "anti-narcotics" aid, was actually just military aid which was being used to fight a leftist insurgency.
During President Uribe's first term in office — , the security situation inside Colombia showed some measure of improvement and the economy, while still fragile, also showed some positive signs of recovery according to observers [ who? But relatively little has been accomplished in structurally solving most of the country's other grave problems, such as poverty and inequality, possibly in part due to legislative and political conflicts between the administration and the Colombian Congress including those over a controversial project to eventually give Uribe the possibility of re-election , and a relative lack of freely allocated funds and credits.
Some critical observers considered that Uribe's policies, while reducing crime and guerrilla activity, were too slanted in favor of a military solution to Colombia's internal war while neglecting grave social and human rights concerns. Critics have asked for Uribe's government to change this position and make serious efforts towards improving the human rights situation inside the country, protecting civilians and reducing any abuses committed by the armed forces.