May 03, · Shaftesbury, was an advocate of better housing for the poor. His agitation led to reforms and on this day, August 3, , he laid the foundation stone of a large housing complex named after him at Battersea. Lord Shaftesbury was fierce in his conviction that Christ must be the center of a living faith. He spoke harshly against deistic tendencies. Shaftesbury was also involved in legislation to rehabilitate young offenders. As a member of the General Board of Health, Shaftesbury turned his attention to public health, pushing through a number of reforms. He set up a sanitary commission for the Crimean War in the s which saved many soldiers’ .
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury KG 28 April — 1 October styled Lord Ashley from to and then Lord Shaftesbury following the death of his father, was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer.
Lord Ashley, as he was styled until his father's death in was educated at Manor House school in Chiswick —Harrow School — and Christ Church, Oxfordwhere he gained first class honours in classics intook his MA in and was appointed DCL in Ashley's early family life was loveless, a circumstance common among the British upper classes, and resembled in that respect the fictional childhood of Esther Summerson vividly narrated in the early chapters of Charles Dickens 's novel Bleak House.
A Best in his biography Shaftesbury writes that: "Ashley grew up without any experience of parental love. He saw little of his parents, and when duty or necessity compelled them to take notice of him they were formal and frightening. This difficult childhood was softened by the affection he received from the family housekeeper Maria Millis, and his sisters. Millis provided for Ashley a model of Christian love that would form the basis for much of his later social activism and philanthropic work, as Best lord shaftesbury what did he do "What did touch him was the reality, and the homely practicality, of the love which her Christianity made her feel towards the unhappy child.
She told him bible stories, she taught him a prayer. By his teenage years, Ashley had become a committed Christian and whilst at Harrow he had two experiences which shaftesburj his later life.
The drunken pall-bearers, stumbling along with a crudely-made coffin and shouting snatches of bawdy songs, brought home to him the existence of a whole empire of callousness which put his own childhood miseries in their context. The second incident was his unusual choice of a subject for a Latin poem. In the school grounds, there was an unsavoury mosquito-breeding pond called the Duck Puddle.
He chose it as his subject because he was urgently concerned that the school authorities should do something about it, and this appeared to be the simplest way of bringing it to their attention. Soon afterwards the Duck Puddle was inspected, condemned and filled in. This little triumph was a useful fillip to his self-confidence, but it was more than that. It was a foretaste of his skill in getting people to act decisively dud face of sloth or immediate self-interest.
This was to prove one of his greatest assets in Parliament. Ashley was elected as the Tory Member of Parliament for Woodstock a pocket borough controlled by the How to help someone who has fallen of Marlborough in June and was a strong supporter of the Duke of Wellington. Ashley politely declined, writing in his diary that he believed that serving under Canning would be a betrayal of his allegiance to the Duke of Wellington and that he was not qualified for office.
The Committee examined many witnesses concerning one of his madhouses in Bethnal Greencalled the White House. Ashley visited this on the Committee's behalf. The patients were chained up, slept naked on straw, and went to toilet in their beds. They were left chained from Saturday afternoon until Monday morning when they were cleared of the accumulated excrement. They were then washed down in freezing cold water and one towel was allotted to lord shaftesbury what did he do, with no soap.
It was overcrowded and the meat provided was "that nasty thick hard muscle a dog could not eat". The White House had been described sgaftesbury "a mere place for dying" rather than curing the insane and when the Committee asked Dr MacMichael whether he believed that "in the lunatic asylums in the neighbourhood of London any curative process is going on with regard to pauper patients", he replied: "None at all".
The Committee recommended that "legislative measures of a remedial suaftesbury should be introduced at the earliest period at di next session", and the establishment of a Board of Commissioners appointed shaftfsbury the Home Secretary possessing extensive powers of how to write a nomination letter sample, inspection and control.
He wrote in his diary: "So, by What does a male mosquito eat blessing, my first effort has been for the advance of human happiness.
May I improve hourly! Fright almost deprived me of recollection but again thank Heaven, I did not sit down quite a presumptuous idiot". Through these Acts, fifteen commissioners were appointed for the London area and given extensive powers of licensing and inspection, one of the commissioners being Ashley. They originated in the Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy which he had commended to Parliament the year before. These Acts consolidated and amended previous lunacy laws, providing better record keeping and more strict certification regulations to ensure patients against unwarranted detention.
They also ordered, instead of merely permitting, the construction of country lunatic asylums with and establishing an ongoing Lunacy Commission with Ashley as its chairman.
He cited the case of a Welsh lunatic girl, Mary Jones, who had for more than a decade been locked in a tiny loft with one boarded-up window with little air and no light. The room was extremely filthy and was filled with shaftesbufy intolerable smell.
She could only squat in a bent position in the room and this had caused her to become deformed. In earlya Select Committee was appointed over concerns that sane persons were detained in lunatic asylums. Lord Shaftesbury as Ashley had become upon his father's death in was the chief witness and opposed the suggestion that the certification of insanity be made more difficult and that early treatment of insanity was essential if there was qhat be any prospect of a cure.
He claimed that only one or two people in his time dealing with lunacy had been detained in an asylum without sufficient grounds and that commissioners should be granted more not fewer how to convert image file to word document. The Committee's Report endorsed all of Shaftesbury's recommendations except for one: that a magistrate's signature on a certificate of lunacy be made compulsory.
This was not put into law chiefly due to Shaftesbury's opposition to it. Clarification needed The Report wha agreed with Shaftesbury that unwarranted detentions were "extremely rare". In JulyShaftesbury gave evidence before the Select Committee on the Lunacy Laws, which had been appointed in February over concerns that it was too easy for shafesbury persons to be detained in asylums.
Shaftesbury feared that because of his advanced age he would be sbaftesbury over by forgetfulness whilst giving evidence and was greatly stressed in the months leading up to this: "Shall fifty years of toil, anxiety and prayer, crowned by marvellous and unlooked-for success, bring me in the end only sorrow and disgrace?
It had been "a state of things such as would pass all belief". In the Committee's Report, the members of how to block internet use Committee agreed with Shaftesbury's evidence on all points.
Inthe husband of Whwt Georgina Weldon tried to have her detained in a lunatic asylum because wjat lord shaftesbury what did he do that her pug dog had a soul and that the spirit of her dead mother had entered into her pet rabbit.
She commenced legal action against Shaftesbury and other lunacy commissioners although it failed. In May, Shaftesbury spoke in the Lords against a motion declaring the lunacy laws unsatisfactory but the motion passed Parliament.
However, Selborne implored him not to resign so Shaftesbury refrained. However, when the Bill was introduced and it contained the provision which made it compulsory for a certificate of lunacy to be signed by a magistrate or a judge, he resigned. The government fell, however, and the Bill was withdrawn and Shaftesbury resumed his chairmanship of the Lunacy Commission.
Shaftesbury's work in improving the care of the insane remains one of his most important, though lesser known, achievements. He wrote: "Beyond the how to connect sql server 2008 from command prompt of my own Commissioners and the lunatics that I visit, sid a soul, in great or small life, not even my associates in my works of philanthropy, has any notion of the years of toil and care that, under God, I have bestowed on this melancholy and awful question".
In MarchAshley introduced the Ten Hours Act into the Commons, which provided that children working in the cotton and woollen industries must be aged nine or above; no person under the age of eighteen was to work more than ten hours a day or eight hours on a Saturday; and no one under twenty-five was to work nights.
However the Whig government, by a majority ofamended this snaftesbury substitute "thirteen" in place of "eighteen" and the Act as it passed ensured that no child under thirteen worked more than nine hours, insisted they should go to school, and appointed inspectors to enforce the what does balm in gilead mean in the bible. In Juneanother Ten Hours act was introduced into the Commons and although Ashley considered this Bill ill-timed, he supported it.
In July one member of the Lancashire committees set up to support the Bill wrote that: "If there was one man in England more devoted to the interests of the factory people than another, it di Lord Ashley.
They might always rely on him as a ready, steadfast and willing friend". It was lost by fifteen votes. This was published in Ashley sacked Dodd who emigrated to America. Though painfully disappointed, I am not disheartened, nor am I at a loss either what course to take, or what advice to give.
I shall persevere unto my last hour, and so must you; we must exhaust every legitimate means that the Constitution afford, in petitions to Parliament, in public meetings, and in friendly conferences with your employers; but you must infringe no law, and offend no hhe we must all work together as sensible men, who will one day give an account of their motives and actions; if this course is approved, no consideration shall detach me from your cause; if not, you must elect another advocate. I know that, in resolving on this step, I exclude myself altogether eid the tenure of office; I rejoice in the sacrifice, happy to devote the remainder of my days, be they many or be they few, as God in His wisdom shall determine, to an effort, however laborious, to ameliorate your moral and social condition.
In MarchAshley moved an amendment to a Factory Bill limiting the working hours of adolescents to ten hours what are coins worth collecting Sir James Graham had introduced a Bill aiming to limit their working hours to twelve hours. Shsftesbury amendment was passed what does tweety bird say eight votes, the first time the Commons had approved of the Ten Hour principle.
However, in a later vote his amendment was defeated by seven votes and the Bill was withdrawn. Ashley supported this Bill except that he wanted ten hours not twelve as the limit. In May he moved an amendment to limit the hours worked to ten hours but this was lost by votes.
Ashley introduced the Mines and Collieries Act in Parliament to outlaw the employment of women and children underground in coal mines. He made a speech in support of the Act and the Prince Consort wrote to him afterwards, sending him the "best wishes for your total success".
At the end of his speech, his opponent on the Ten Hours issue, Cobden, walked over how to download videos from fox Ashley and said: "You know how opposed I have been to your views, but I don't think I have ever been put into such a frame of mind in the whole course of my life as I have been by your speech". Ashley was a strong supporter of prohibiting the employment of boys as chimney sweeps. Many climbing boys were illegitimate who had xhaftesbury sold by their parents.
They suffered from scorched and lacerated skin, their eyes and throats filled with soot, with the danger of suffocation and their occupational disease— shafetsbury of the scrotum. Despite being enforced in London, elsewhere the Act did not stop the employment of child chimney sweeps and this led to the foundation of the Climbing-Boys' Society with Ashley as its chairman. InandShaftesbury introduced Bills into Parliament to deal with the ongoing use of boy chimney sweeps but these were all defeated.
He succeeded in passing the Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act but, like its predecessors, it remained ineffectual. Shaftesbury finally persuaded Parliament to pass the Chimney Sweepers Act which ensured the annual licensing of chimney sweeps and whaftesbury enforcement of the rid by the police. This finally eradicated the employment of boys as chimney sweeps. After Shaftesbury discovered that a boy chimney sweep was living behind his house in Brock Street, London, he rescued the child and how to open a cwk file in windows him to "the Union School at Norwood Hill, where, under God's blessing and special merciful grace, he will be trained in the knowledge and love and faith of our common Saviour".
InAshley became president of the Ragged School Union that promoted ragged schools. These schools were for poor children and sprang up from volunteers. Ashley wrote that "If the Ragged School system were to fail I should not die in the course of nature, I should die of a broken heart". Shaftesbury was a pre-millennial evangelical Anglican who believed in the imminent second coming of Christ.
His belief underscored the urgency of immediate action. He denounced the Maynooth College Actwhich funded the Catholic seminary in Ireland that would train many priests. Shaftesbury was a leading figure within 19th-century evangelical Anglicanism. He wrote, of the Bible Society, "Of all Societies, this is nearest to my heart Whhat Society shaftesburry always been a watchword in our house.
Shaftesbury was also a student of Edward Bickersteth and the two men became prominent advocates of Christian Zionism in Britain. As a consequence of that shift, Shaftesbury was able to help persuade Foreign Minister Palmerston to send a British consul, James Finnto Jerusalem in Shaftesbury became president of the London Shaftesbbury for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews of which Finn was a prominent member. A committed Christian and a loyal Englishman, Shaftesbury argued for a Jewish return because of what he saw as the political and economic advantages Britain would gain from this and because he believed that it was God's will.
Jolen creme bleach how to use JanuaryShaftesbury published an article in the Quarterly Reviewwhich although initially commenting on the Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land by Lord Lindsayprovided the first proposal by a major politician to resettle Jews in Palestine:  . The soil and climate of Palestine are singularly adapted to the growth of produce required for the exigencies of Great Britain; the finest cotton may be obtained in almost unlimited abundance; silk and madder are the staple of the country, and olive oil is now, as it ever was, the very fatness of the land.
Capital and skill are alone required: the presence of a British officer, and the increased security of property which his presence will confer, may invite them from these islands to the cultivation of Palestine; and the Jews, who will betake themselves to agriculture in no other land, having found, in the English consul, a mediator between their people and the Pacha, will probably return in yet greater numbers, and become once more the husbandmen of Judaea and Galilee.
Shaftesbury was president of the Ragged School Union, promoting the education of poor children. Lord Shaftesbury was married to Lady Emily Caroline Catherine Frances Cowper. They had ten children. He died on 1st October He was 84 years old. A funeral service was held in Westminster Abbey. Many people assembled to catch a glimpse of Shaftesbury’s coffin. Mar 10, · In until , he was called Lord Ashley for his full name is Anthony Ashley Cooper. He inherited the title as Lord Shaftesbury after the death of his father. Shaftesbury was known as a social reformer and politician in England. His father was the sixth of . Apr 16, · Touring the underside of London, Shaftesbury found ragged young beggars living on the streets or crowded into filthy hovels and boarding houses. He led the effort to clean up the pest holes and provide clean water, better sanitation, and improved housing. He also promoted the establishment of schools for the children.
What next? Find out more about Victorian factory reforms , learn about William Wilberforce another famous British philanthropist and reformer , or visit our Victorians resources page. Best website ever! I know. It helped me on my homework so much. I think that this website is good because it states all the facts you need to know about Lord Shaftesbury and is a great use for a History project! Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
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