Digital cinema: How it works
May 16, · Based on the digital signal, the projector directs some of the liquid crystals to let reflected light through and others to block it. In this way, the LCD modifies the high-intensity light beam to create an image. There is a flip-side to digital projector technology. In both projector designs, individual pixels may break from time to time. When this happens, it degrades the image quality of . Mar 10, · First there are LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, which use polarized light shone through three liquid crystal panels (one for each primary color), a .
Kannu's view is misplaced. The most technologically advanced film industries in India are Telugu and Tamil. What channel does dr oz come on dish use much advanced technologies and high-end equipment but Tamil and Telugu cinema mainly caters to the so-called "uneducated working class. I think we need mature audience first. In a country where holding hands in public is still considered ' eigital ' It is not profitable to make B grade movies which most movies are on the expensive digital format.
I belong to the movie making fraternity, so I know. Refrain from posting comments that are obscene, defamatory or inflammatory, and do not indulge in personal attacks, name calling or inciting hatred against any community. Help us delete comments that do not follow these guidelines by marking them offensive. Let's work together to keep the conversation civil. Digital cinema: How it works Digital cinema: How it works. Digital technology is nothing new. But films seem to be a rather recent entry in this field.
This in spite the epic George Lucas release of Star War sequel being made using digital cinema and showcased likewise way back in So what really is digital cinema? Digital cinema is essentially a reelless approach to movie making. It refers to the use of digital technology to distribute and project motion pictures. Essentially a movie will be distributed via hard drives, optical disks such as DVDs or satellite and projected using a digital projector instead of a conventional film projector.
The rise of digital cinema George Lucas, the creator of the Dkes Wars series, has been widely attributed as the pioneer behind digital cinemas. Lucas, dissatisfied with celluloid and traditional filmbased special effects, developed the hardware to create the special effects he wanted. However, when the shots were projected onto the big screen, the film did not quite match the required quality.
The what is my wurlitzer piano worth, Lucas then involved the likes of Texas Instruments, Technicolor, Kodak and others to produce a video-based digital cinema system. The mechanism The basic idea that digital cinema works on is the use bits and bytes strings of 1s and 0s to record, transmit and replay images, rather than using chemicals on film proojector in case of celluloid.
The biggest advantage of digital cinema such as VCD, DVD and the like is that it can store, transmit and retrieve in huge amount of information exactly as gow was projectof recorded. Many faces of digital cinema However the lack of high quality image has done little to undermine the advantages of digital cinemas. Production-wise, digital video is much cheaper than film reel.
There is virtually no processing involved before the editing stage. Filmmakers on a shoe-string budget can even reuse the tape multiple times.
Distribution-wise, the most compelling argument in favour of digital cinema is that it reduces the dissemination budget by at least 50 per cent. Editing-wise, digital cinema is sore mouth from braces what to do simpler and faster to tweak with.
Traditionally, filmmakers convert film footage to digital format for post-production and then back to film again for its theatrical release. Projection-wise, it maintains consistency. Be it the first or st time, digital movies will look the same every time it is screened.
So if there is no audience for a particular film, then it can be changed to another without a fuss. Are we there yet? View comments Post a comment. Characters Remaining: Continue without login.
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Oct 11, · We all have interest in ctcwd.com often watch a new movie as soon as it gets released with our family or friends in a big screen in ctcwd.com have we ever. May 16, · But things are starting to change. George Lucas kicked off the digital cinema charge in May of with "Star Wars: Episode II, the Attack of the Clones," the first big budget live action movie shot entirely on digital video. Most theaters played mm film transfers of the movie, but some played it on digital movie ctcwd.com never entered the picture. Oct 02, · Essentially a movie will be distributed via hard drives, optical disks (such as DVDs) or satellite and projected using a digital projector instead of a conventional film projector. The rise of digital cinema George Lucas, the creator of the Star Wars series, has been widely attributed as the pioneer behind digital cinemas. Lucas, dissatisfied with celluloid and traditional filmbased special .
A movie projector is an opto - mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras.
Modern movie projectors are specially built video projectors. The main precursor to the movie projector was the magic lantern. In its most common setup it had a concave mirror behind a light source to help direct as much light as possible through a painted glass picture slide and a lens, out of the lantern onto a screen.
Simple mechanics to have the painted images moving were probably implemented since Christiaan Huygens introduced the apparatus around Initially candles and oil lamps were used, but other light sources, such as the argand lamp and limelight were usually adopted soon after their introduction. Magic lantern presentations may often have had relatively small audiences, but the very popular phantasmagoria and dissolving views shows were usually performed in proper theatres, large tents or especially converted spaces with plenty seats.
Both Joseph Plateau and Simon Stampfer thought of lantern projection when they independently introduced stroboscopic animation in with a stroboscopic disc which became known as the phenakistiscope , but neither of them intended to work on projection themselves. His Phantaskop had a front with separate lenses for each of the 12 pictures on a disc and two separate lenses were cranked around to direct light through the pictures.
Wordsworth Donisthorpe patented ideas for a cinematographic film camera and a film presentation system in In reply to the introduction of the phonograph and a magazine's suggestion that it could be combined with projection of stereoscopic photography, Donisthorpe stated that he could do even better and announce that he would present such images in motion.
His original Kinesigraph camera gave unsatisfactory results. He had better results with a new camera in but never seems to have been successful in projecting his movies. Eadweard Muybridge developed his Zoopraxiscope in and gave many lectures with the machine from to It projected images from rotating glass disks. The images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes.
A second series of discs, made in —94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, then colored by hand. For each scene, 24 glass plates with chronophotographic images were attached to the edge of a large rotating wheel and thrown on a small opal-glass screen by very short synchronized flashes from a Geissler tube.
He demonstrated his photographic motion from March until at least January to circa 4 or 5 people at a time, in Berlin, other large German cities, Brussels at the Exposition Universelle , Florence, Saint Petersburg, New York, Boston and Philadelphia. Between and he concentrated on the exploitation of an automatic coin-operated version that was an inspiration for Edison Company's Kinetoscope. From 28 November to at least May he projected his recordings from two intermittently rotating discs, mostly in seat halls, in several German cities.
During circa 5 weeks of screenings at the old Berlin Reichstag in February and March , circa 7. In Louis Le Prince applied for a US patent for a lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector. In , he used an updated version of his camera to film the motion picture Roundhay Garden Scene and other scenes. The pictures were privately exhibited in Hunslet. However, he went missing after boarding a train in France and was declared dead in His widow and son managed to draw attention to Le Prince's work and eventually he came to be regarded as the true inventor of film a claim also made for many others.
After years of development, Edison eventually introduced the coin-operated peep-box Kinetoscope movie viewer in , mostly in dedicated parlours. He believed this was a commercially much more viable system than projection in theatres. Many other film pioneers found chances to study the technology of the kinetoscope and further developed it for their own movie projection systems. The Eidoloscope , devised by Eugene Augustin Lauste for the Latham family, was demonstrated for members of the press on 21 April and opened to the paying public on May 20, in a lower Broadway store with films of the Griffo-Barnett prize boxing fight, taken from Madison Square Garden 's roof on 4 May.
Max and Emil Skladanowsky projected motion pictures with their Bioscop , a flickerfree duplex construction, from 1 to 31 November They still presented their motion pictures in several European cities until March , but eventually the Bioscop had to be retired as a commercial failure. Even Edison, joined the trend with the Vitascope , a modified Jenkins' Phantoscope, within less than six months.
In ,  digital cinema projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres. These early projectors played the movie stored on a computer, and sent to the projector electronically. Due to their relatively low resolution usually only 2K compared to later digital cinema systems, the images at the time had visible pixels.
By , the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection reduced pixel visibility. The systems became more compact over time. By , movie theatres started replacing film projectors with digital projectors. In , numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan —lobbied large studios to commit to purchase a minimum amount of 35 mm film from Kodak. The decision ensured that Kodak's 35 mm film production would continue for several years.
Although usually more expensive than film projectors, high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units.
For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely, are relatively compact and have no film to break, scratch or change reels of. They also allow for much easier, less expensive, and more reliable storage and distribution of content. All-electronic distribution eliminates all physical media shipments. There is also the ability to display live broadcasts in theaters equipped to do so. In Max Wertheimer discovered beta movement and the phi phenomenon.
In each the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images. This theory is said to account for the illusion of motion which results when a series of film images is displayed in quick succession, rather than the perception of the individual frames in the series.
Persistence of vision should be compared with the related phenomena of beta movement and phi movement. A critical part of understanding these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera , i. The frequency at which flicker becomes invisible is called the flicker fusion threshold , and is dependent on the level of illumination. This threshold varies across different species; a higher proportion of rod cells in the retina will create a higher threshold level.
Because the eye and brain have no fixed capture rate, this is an elastic limit, so different viewers can be more or less sensitive in perceiving frame rates. It is possible to view the black space between frames and the passing of the shutter by rapidly blinking ones eyes at a certain rate. If done fast enough, the viewer will be able to randomly "trap" the image between frames, or during shutter motion.
This will not work with now obsolete cathode ray tube displays due to the persistence of the phosphors nor with LCD or DLP light projectors because they refresh the image instantly with no blackout intervals as with film projectors.
Silent films usually were not projected at constant speeds, but rather were varied throughout the show at the discretion of the projectionist, often with some notes provided by the distributor. This was more a function of hand-cranked projectors than the silence. When the electric motor supplanted hand cranking in both movie cameras and projectors, a more uniform frame rate became possible.
Nitrate film stock began to be replaced by cellulose triacetate in A nitrate film fire and its devastating effect is featured in Cinema Paradiso , a fictional film which partly revolves around a projectionist and his apprentice. The birth of sound film created a need for a steady playback rate to prevent dialog and music from changing pitch and distracting the audience. This speed was chosen for both financial and technical reasons.
A higher frame rate produces a better looking picture, but costs more as film stock is consumed faster. When Warner Bros. They set that as the sound speed at which a satisfactory reproduction and amplification of sound could be conducted. There are some specialist formats e. Each frame of regular 24 fps movies are shown twice or more in a process called "double-shuttering" to reduce flicker.
As in a slide projector there are essential optical elements:. Incandescent lighting and even limelight were the first light sources used in film projection. In the early s up until the late s, carbon arc lamps were the source of light in almost all theaters in the world. The Xenon arc lamp was introduced in Germany in and in the US in After film platters became commonplace in the s, Xenon lamps became the most common light source, as they could stay lit for extended periods of time, whereas a carbon rod used for a carbon arc could last for an hour at the most.
Most lamp houses in a professional theatrical setting produce sufficient heat to burn the film should the film remain stationary for more than a fraction of a second. Because of this, absolute care must be taken in inspecting a film so that it should not break in the gate and be damaged, particularly necessary in the era when flammable cellulose nitrate film stock was in use.
A positive curvature lens concentrates the reflected and direct light toward the film gate. A metal or asbestos blade which cuts off light before it can get to the film. The douser is usually part of the lamphouse, and may be manually or automatically operated. Some projectors have a second, electrically controlled douser that is used for changeovers sometimes called a "changeover douser" or "changeover shutter". Some projectors have a third, mechanically controlled douser that automatically closes when the projector slows down called a "fire shutter" or "fire douser" , to protect the film if the projector stops while the first douser is still open.
Dousers protect the film when the lamp is on but the film is not moving, preventing the film from melting from prolonged exposure to the direct heat of the lamp. It also prevents the lens from scarring or cracking from excessive heat.
If a roll of film is continuously passed between the light source and the lens of the projector, only a continuous blurred series of images sliding from one edge to the other would be visible on the screen. In order to see an apparently moving clear picture, the moving film must be stopped and held still briefly while the shutter opens and closes.
The gate is where the film is held still prior to the opening of the shutter. This is the case for both filming and projecting movies. A single image of the series of images comprising the movie is positioned and held flat within the gate. The gate also provides a slight amount of friction so that the film does not advance or retreat except when driven to advance the film to the next image.
The intermittent mechanism advances the film within the gate to the next frame while the shutter is closed. Registration pins prevent the film from advancing while the shutter is open.
In most cases the registration of the frame can be manually adjusted by the projectionist, and more sophisticated projectors can maintain registration automatically. It is the gate and shutter that gives the illusion of one full frame being replaced exactly on top of another full frame.
The gate holds the film still while the shutter is open. A rotating petal or gated cylindrical shutter interrupts the emitted light during the time the film is advanced to the next frame. The viewer does not see the transition, thus tricking the brain into believing a moving image is on screen. Modern shutters are designed with a flicker-rate of two times 48 Hz or even sometimes three times 72 Hz the frame rate of the film, so as to reduce the perception of screen flickering.